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Misai Kucing

Plant Part Used

Leaves

Active Constituents

Beta-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene, caryophyllene-epoxide, eupatorin, sinensetin, scutellarine tetramethyl ethers, salvigenin, 7,3',4’-tri-O-methylluteolin, 5-hydroxy-6, 7’,3',4’-tetramethoxyflavone, ladanein, 6-hydroxy-5, 7’,4'-trimethoxyflavone, 2,3-dicoffeoyltartrate, rosmaric acid, 2-caffeoyltartrate, terpenoids. diterpene ester, orthosiphole A to E (diterpene dibenzoyl diacetyl ester of primarane type), neoorthosiphol A and B orthosiphole F to J, staminol A and B, norstaminol A orthochromene A (benzochromene), triterpene saponins; aglycone hederagenin, orthosiphole A to E, (diterpene dibenzoyl diacetyl ester of primarane type), neoorthosiphol A and B, orthosiphole A and B, staminol A and B, norstaminol A, octhochromene A (benzochromene), aglycone hederagenin (triterpene saponins), alpha- & beta-carotene, crptoxantin, beta-zeacarotene, neo-beta-carotene, alpha-carotene oxide, vomo ofoliol, aurantiamide acetate, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, betulinic acid, beta-sitosterol. (1) , (2) , (3) , (4)

Introduction

As a herbaceous shrub, it can grow up to 1.5m height. The stems are quadrangle and reddish in color, and it branches profusely. Petiole is about 0.3m in length and reddish purple in color. The leaves are arranged in opposite pairs, simple, green and glabrous with a lanceolate leaf blade and serrate margin. The leaf apiece is acuminate with acute leaf base. The flowers are campanulate in shape, white to bluish in color with long exerted filaments; making the flower look like cat's whiskers.

he plant is found in an area extending from tropical Asia to tropical Australia. It is cultivated in those areas and elsewhere. In Malaysia, it commonly seen in many home gardens and in the wild, it can be seen growing along the forest edges, roadsides, and wastelands. It is a popular traditional folk medicine and is extenively used for the treatment of several diseases such as ailments of the bladder and kidney.

Dosage Info

Dosage Range

Dosage Range Daily dosage: 6-12 g herbs; equivalent preparations.

Most Common Dosage

Dosage Range Daily dosage: 6-12 g herbs; equivalent preparations.

Standardization

Orthosiphon stamineus BENTH is usually standardized to its sinensetin. Other standard profiles were documented in the Malaysian Herbal Monograph. (5)

Toxicities & Precautions

Introduction

Use of this herb for irrigation therapy is contraindicated in the presence of edema resulting from reduced cardiac or renal activity. (6)

Side Effects

No health hazards or side effects are known in conjunction with the proper administration of designated therapeutic dosages. (7)

Pharmacology

Diuretic Activities
Various reports have been published related to the diuretic activity of Orthosiphon extract on both animals and man. Diuretic effects were observed in rabbit, dogs and rats; oral application of 750mg/kg body weight. The iyophilized aqueous extract enhanced ion excretion (K+, Na+, C-) in rats, whereas no increase in urine excretion was observed. Similar effects were reported in man, such as increased diuresis and elimination of chlorides and urea. It was reported that there are no influences recorded for 12 and 24 hrs urine output or on the sodium excretion for any of drugs when tested under standardized conditions in a placebo controlled double-blind crossover model. (8) In clinical studies with healthy volunteers in Thailand, the extract of Orthosiphon was shown to cause the increase of the citrate and oxalate excretion. (9) Although a higher level of oxalate may increase the risk of kidney stones, the increased citrate output helped prevent stone formation. Studies have been done on a hyro-alcohol extract of Orthosiphon for diuretic activities in rats (10) which pharmacological evaluations revealed that they led to an increase in urine flow. Urinary sodium excretion was also increased.

Anti-hypertensive Activities
Orthosiphon stamineus also demonstrated anti-hypertensive activities. It was reported that the chloroform-soluble portion of the water decoction of kumis kucing showed an inhibitory effect on the contractile responses on rat thoracic aorta smooth muscle stimulated with KCI beforehand. (11) Methylripariochromene A (MRC) was isolated from the leaves of Misai kucing and subjected to the examination of several pharmacological reactions related to hypertensive activity. (12) The following four finding were revealed from the study; 1) MRC caused a continuous decrease in systolic blood pressure and a decrease in heart rate after subcutaneous administration in conscious male SHRSP, 2) MRC exhibited the concentration-dependent suppression of contractions induced by high K+, I-phenylephrine or prostaglandin F2,11 in endothelium-denuded rat thoracic aorta, 3) MRC showed a marked suppression of contractile force without a significant reduction in the beating rate in isolated bilateral guinea pig atria, and 4) MRC increased urinary volume and excretion of Na+, K+ and Cl- for 3 h after oral administration with a load of saline in fasted rats. These findings indicate that MRC possesses some actions related to a decrease in blood pressure and diuretic action.

Reported Uses

Uses reported in folk medicine, but not supported by clinical data

  • gout
  • diabetes
  • rheumatism
  • catarrh of the bladder
  • diuretic
  • anti-allergic
  • anti-inflammatory
  • antihypertensive
  • anti-tumor

 

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  1) Cultivation

  2) Safety

References

  1. Lyckander IM, Malterud KE. Lipophilic flavonoids from Orthosiphon spicatus Prevent Oxidative Inactivation of 15-lipoxygenase. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent. Fatty Acids. 1996;54(4):239-46.
  2. Malterud KE, Hanche-Olsen IM, Smith Kielland. Flavonoids from Orthosiphon spicatus. Planta Medica. 1989;55(6):569-70.
  3. Ohashi K, Bohgaki T, Matsubara T, Shibuya H. Indonesian Medicinal Plants XXIII. Chemical Structures of Two New Migrated Pimarane-type Diterpenes, Neoorthosiphols A and B and Suppressive effects on Rat Thoracic Aorta of Chemical Constituents isolated from the Leaves of Orthosiphon stamineus. Chem Pharm Bull. 2000;48(3):433-5.
  4. Zhari Ismail, Noorhayati Ismail, Jaafar Lassa. Malaysia Herbal Monograph. Ministry of Health. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 2003;2.
  5. Zhari Ismail, Noorhayati Ismail, Jaafar Lassa. Malaysia Herbal Monograph. Ministry of Health. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 2003;2.
  6. Blumenthal M. The Complete German t Commission Monographs. Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicine. American Botanical Council. Austin, Texas. 1998.
  7. Blumenthal M. The Complete German t Commission Monographs. Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicine. American Botanical Council. Austin, Texas. 1998.
  8. Doan DD, Nguyen NH, Doan HK, et al. Studies on the Individual and Combined Diuretic Effects of Four Vietnamese Traditional Herbal Remedied (Zea mays, Imperata cylindrical, Plantago major and Orthosiphon stamineus). J Ethnophamacol. 1992;36(3):225-31.
  9. Nirnoy M, Muangman V. Effect of Folia Orthosiphonis on Urinary Stone Promoters and Inhibitors. J Med Assoc Thai. 1991;74(6):318-21.
  10. Beaux D, Fleureantin J, Mortier F. Effects of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth, Hieracium pilosella L., Sambucus nigra L, and Actostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng in Rats. Phytoter Res. 1999;13(3):222-5.
  11. Ohashi K, Bohgaki T, Shibuya H. Anti hypertensive Substances in the Leaves of Kumis Kucing (Orthosiphon aristatus) in Java Island. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2000;120(5):474-82.
  12. Matsubara T, Bohgaki T, Watarai M, Suzuki H, Ohashi, Shibuya H. Anti hypertensive actions of Methylripario Chromene A from Orthosiphon aristatus, an Indonesian Traditional Medicinal Plant. Biol Pharm Bull. 1999;22(10):1083-8.

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