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Adenostemma viscosum J.R. & G. Forst. (Asteraceae alt. Compositae)



Adenostemma lavenia var. elata (Linn.) O. Kuntze, Verbesina lavenia L. [1]

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia: Daun Susu Babi, Rumput Tahi Babi, Rumput Pasir, Sembong Gajah, Pokok Lokman Al-hakim, Lok Kemala Hakim.
Indonesia: Daun Tempel Daging, Pempulut Babi, Rumput Babi, Pulot-pulot, Legetan Warak, Seprah, Tespong (Javanese); Bababian, Jukut Jarian, Jotang Loewoeng, Kagirangan, Kakejoan, Kejo Beyar (Sudanese). 
English: Dungweed, Common medicine plant

Boton (Tagalog); Bulak-manok (Tag., Pamp.); Darakat (Sub.); Dolomnena-babaii (If.); Panikit (Bon.); Salindukot (Buk.); Ubat-lastung (Sulu).

Hawaii: Kāmanamana

General Information


Adenostemma viscosum is a perennial herb, measuring 0.7m in high, which is a native of Africa (northeast, east, west-central, west, south tropical Africa, South Africa, western Africa on the Indian Ocean), temperate China, the Indian Subcontinent, Indochina, the Malay islands (Malaysia, Indonesia; Philippines), Northwestern and Southwestern Pacific, Australia, Polynesia, and Micronesia. [1]  A. viscosum grows in shady, wet areas along streams and seepages, or alongside trails in black peat or clay. The leaves are ‘ovate to rhombic, measuring 5-15(20)cm in long and 1.5-7(8)cm in wide, glabrous, the margins coarsely serrate with gland-tipped teeth, base cuneate to attenuate’ while for the inflorescence, the ‘heads ca 5mm in diameter; involucral bracts linear-spatulate, 4-5mm long, margins ciliate; disk corollas white, 3.5-4mm long; white flowers on inflorescence’. The fruits are ‘achenes brown, warty, 4-5mm long’. [2]

Plant Part Used

Whole plant. [3]

Chemical Constituents

11-Hydroxylated kauranic acids, viz, ent-11α-hydroxy-15 α -acetoxykaur-16-en-19-oic acid, ent-11α, 15 α -dihydroxykaur-16-en-19-oic acid, (l6R)-ent-11α -hydroxy-15-oxokauran-19-oic acid and ent-11α -hydroxy-15-oxokaur-16-en-10-oic acid and their glycosides. [3]

Traditional Use:

The whole plant is used in Taiwan folk medicine to treat lung congestion, oedema, pneumonia, inflammation. [3] In the Phillipines and the Malay islands, the leaf preparation is used as antispasmodic while the fresh juice is used as a stimulant.  A poultice of A. viscosum is used on the head, for nose ulcerations and to treat diarrhea.  The roots are chewed for diarrhea while A. viscosum juice is taken for dysentery. [4] The roots are also chewed with a little areca nut and some lime to treat coughs. [5] The leaves are used when washing the hair to prevent hair falls. Theleaves are crushed and pasted onto sun-burned skin to cool the skin. The leaves are softened over a fire and then applied onto boils to mature them.  The leaves are taken with some salt for sore throat. [5]

A. viscosum is used in the preparation of indigo dye. [6]

Pre-Clinical Data


No documentation


No documentation

Genotoxicities and Mutagenicity Studies

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Use in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation


No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation


Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation



No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

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  1) Botanical Info


    1. URL: (12 March 2009)
    2. Board of Water supply, Honolulu
    3. Cheng PC., Hufford C D, Doorenbos N J.  Isolation of 11-hydroxylated Kauranic acids from Adenostemma Lavenia.  J. Nat. Prod. 42, 183, 1979.
    4. Boton.
    5. Heyne K. Tumbuhan Berguna Indonesia, Jilid I, Balai Litbang Kehutanan,departemen Kehutanan, hal. 312–314 , 518, 538–539, 1987.
    6. Cooksey, CJ.  'Indigo: an annotated bibliography'.  Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 82:2, 105 – 125, 2007.

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