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Gmelina elliptica J.E. Smith

Gmelina elliptica J.E. Smith




Gmelina villosa Roxb., Gmelina asiatica L. var. villosa (Roxb.)

Vernacular Names

Malaysia Bulangan, belongeh, pukang matahari (Peninsular).
Indonesia Wareng (Javanese, Sundanese), bulangan (Madurese, Malay), pongranga (Buginese).
Philippines Talungud (Sulu), bohol (Cebu Bisaya), kalun-gun (Panay Bisaya).
Thailand Khaang maeo (Central, Peninsular), kra bia luenag (Eastern), nom maeo (South-western, Peninsular).
Vietnam Tun[us] l[as] b[aaf]u d[uj]c.

Geographical Distributions

Gmelina elliptica is found in Thailand, Indo-China, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines.


G. elliptica is an evergreen shrub or small tree measuring up to 10 m tall, with spines and the light grey bark becomes fissured. The twigs are hairless and densely covered with short soft hair when young.

The leaves are ovate or elliptical, entire, sometimes 3-lobed, measure 3-9 cm x 2-5.5 cm; its base is wedge-shaped while its apex is acute, hairless above, densely covered with short soft hairs and pale bluish-green below with minute green glands at base.

The raceme is terminal, measuring up to 10 cm long with rather large bracts and sepals measure about 5 mm long, usually 4-lobed, with large glands. The 2-4 cm long petal is yellow. The upper lip is entire while the middle lobe of the 3-lobed lower lip is larger than other lobes, and densely covered with short soft hairs.

The drupe is yellow, spherical and measures about 2 cm long.

Ecology / Cultivation

G. elliptica is common in open secondary vegetation especially near the coast and in Java is from sea-level up to 500 m altitude.

Line Drawing / Photograph



  1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 12(2): Medicinal and poisonous plants 2.

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