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Sida acuta Burm. f.

 Synonyms

Sida carpinifolia auct. non L.f

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia:

Seleguri, or sedeguri, pokok kelulut putih, ketumbar hutan, lidah ular, bunga telur belangkas, dukung anak, sidaturi, medang melukut.[1]

English:

Broomweed, broomgrass, morning mallow.[2

Tamil:  Kayapundu, arivalmanaipundu mayirmanikkam.[2
Javanese:  Sidaguri.[1]
Sudanese: 

Galunggang, sadagori.[1

Thai: 

Yung pat, yung kwat.[1

General Information

Description

This small shrub, belonging to the Malvaceae family, is found widely in the tropics. It grows along both the coastal regions of Peninsular Malaysia. It is commonly found on abandoned areas especially by roadsides and in wastelands.[1]

Plant Part Used

Leaf, root.[1]

Chemical Constituents

GC-MS analysis of alkaloid extracts of the aerial part of Sida acuta led to the isolation of two major constituents; cryptolepine and quindoline.[3

An activity-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of S.acuta plant using a bioassay based on the induction of quinone reductase, revealed ten active compounds; quindolinone, cryptolepinone, 11-methoxyquindoline, N-trans-feruloyltyramine, vomifoliol, loliolide, 4-ketopinoresinol, scopoletin, evofolin-A, and evofolin-B, along with five inactive compounds; ferulic acid, sinapic acid, syringic acid, (+/-) syringaresinol, and vanillic acid. In addition, a new derivative of quindolinone i.e. 5,10-dimethylquindolin-11-one was synthesized.[4

Sida acuta also contains cryptolepine 5-methylindolo(2-3b)-quinoline, ecdysterone, ephidrine, hentriacontane, and hypolaetin-8-glucoside.[3][5

Three types of alkaloidal constituents, i.e. β-phenethylamines, quinazolines and   carboxylated tryptamines, in addition to choline and betaine have been isolated from Sida acuta, S. humilis, S. rhombifolia, and S. spinosa.[6

The indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine has been identified as the toxic constituent of Sida carpinifolia reponsible for the neurological disorder in goats and ponies.[7]

Traditional Use:

In Malacca, the leaves and roots are boiled and may be used for poulticing the chest to treat coughs. The pounded leaves are used to promote the healing of wounds and are also used to address influenza, toothaches, chest pains, ulcers, scabies, abscesses, impotence, gonorrhoea and rheumatism.[2]

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology

Antimicrobial activity

A study investigated the antimicrobial activity of alkaloids from S.acuta against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial assays were performed by the agar-well diffusion and the broth microdilution for the evaluation of inhibiton zone diameters, MIC and MBC values. The highest inhibition zone diameters were recorded with Gram-positive bacteria. The microdilution assay gave the range of MIC values of 16-400 mg/ml and 80-400 mg/ml in the case of MBC, for different strains. Hence, the two major alkaloids in the extract, identified as cryptolepine and quindoline, exhibited good antimicrobial activity against several test microorganisms.[3

Analgesic activity:

The analgesic activity of seven crude methanolic extracts of Indian medicinal plants, which includes S.acuta whole plant, was evaluated by hot plate and tail immersion methods at three dose levels of 100, 300 and 500 mg/ml, i.p. in mice. However, S.acuta extract only showed significant protection of 55% at the highest dose of 500 mg/ml.[5

Antiplasmodial activity:

An investigation of extracts of S.acuta for in vitro antiplasmodial activity against two strains of Plasmodium falciparum, a chloroquine-sensitive strain and a chloroquine-resistant strain, was reported. The antiplasmodial activity was evaluated by a radioactive micromethod. The IC50 values obtained with various fractions of the plant on P. falciparum culture, ranged from 3.9 to 5.4 mg/ml, confirmed and supported the antiplasmodial activities of such traditional preparations.[8

Antimalarial activity:

In the search for new antimalarial drugs, out of four traditional medicine plants of Burkina Faso screened, the ethanolic fraction of S.acuta showed the highest activity with IC50 < 5mg/ml. when tested in vitro on fresh clinical isolates of P.falciparum.[9]

Neutralizing activity against snake venom:

An evaluation study demonstrated that an ethanolic extract of the whole plant has a moderate neutralizing activity (ca. 34%) against the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom at doses up to 4 mg/mouse.[10]

Toxicities

A study reports a neurologic disease observed for two years in a flock of 28 Anglo-Nubian and Saanen goats grazing in a 5 ha of pasture. The predominant plant in the pasture was Sida carpinifolia. Clinical and pathological examinations were performed after administration on three naturally and two experimentally poisoned goats. The neurological disorder, characterised by ataxia, hypermetria, hyperesthesia, and muscle tremors of the head and neck was observed. No significant gross lesions were observed. The results also show that multiple cytoplasm vacuoles in hepatocytes, acinar pancreatic cells, and neurons were the most striking microscopic lesions in all the animals and is consistent with a-mannosidosis, a lysosomal storage disease. The study concluded that with this discovery, the induced a-mannosidosis in goats could be used as a model in comparative pathology and biomedical research.[7]

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Use in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

There is concern and likely unsafe, when taken orally, as this herb contains ephedrine which can cause serious side effects including hypertension, myocardial infarction, seizure, stroke, and psychosis.[11]

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindictions

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

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  1)  Botanical Info

References

  1. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur. Compendium of Medicinal Plants Used in Malaysia. 2002; 2:341-342.
  2. Natures Club Wildlife India: http://www.blackbuck.org.in/wildplants/wild_jan2000.htm accessed on 24 May 2007.
  3. Karou, D. et al. Antibacterial activity of alkaloids from Sida acuta. African J. Biotechnol. 2006; 5:195-200 and references therein.
  4. Jang, D.S. et al. Compounds obtained from Sida acuta with the potential to induce quinone reductase and to inhibit 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced preneoplastic lesions in a mouse mammary organ culture model. Arch. Pharma. Res. 2003; 26:585-90. Absract.
  5. Malairajan,P., Gopalakrishnan, G., Narasimhan, S. & Veni, K.J.K. Analgesic activity of some Indian medicinal plants. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006; 106:425-8.
  6. Prakash,A., Varma, R.K. & Ghosal, S. Alkaloid Constituents of Sida acuta, S. humilis, S. rhombifilia and S. spinosa. Planta Med. 2006; 43:384-8. Abstract.
  7. Driemeier, D. et al. Lysosomal Storage Disease caused by Sida carpinifolia Poisoning in Goats. Vet. Pathol. 2000; 37:153-9.
  8. Banzouzi, J-T. et al. Studies on medicinal plants of Ivory Coast: Investigation of Sida acuta for in vitro antiplasmodial activities and identification of an active constituent. Phytomedicine. 2004; 11:338-41.
  9. Karou, D. et al. Antimalarial activity of Sida acuta Burm. f. (Malvaceae) and Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. (Fabaceae). J. Ethnopharmacol. 2003; 89:291-4.
  10. Otero, R. et al. Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia. Part III: Neutralization of the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 73:233-44.
  11. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database: Monograph, http://www.naturaldatabase.com/country mallow.html, accessed on 6 November 2007.

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