Compilation of herbal plants (description, geographical distribution, taxonomy, line drawings), biodiversity and herbarium.

Read More
Research & Publication

Description of herbal and T&CM research, searchable publication and process from medicinal plant discovery to clinical trial in producing a high-quality registered herbal drug.

Read More
Traditional & Complementary Medicine (T&CM)


Definition and description of therapies, policy, training and education, research in the practise of (T&CM) and integrated medicine system.           

Read More


News Update

Announcement & Advertisement

Forthcoming Events

International Congress on Drug Delivery

From Mon, 5. October 2020 Until Tue, 6. October 2020

Global Pharmaceutical and Pharma Industry Conference

From Mon, 12. October 2020 Until Tue, 13. October 2020

14th International Conference on Pharmaceutics and Drug Safety

From Wed, 21. October 2020 Until Thu, 22. October 2020

Seminar Tumbuhan Ubatan, Beraroma dan Pegetahuan Tradisi 2020

From Tue, 10. November 2020 Until Wed, 11. November 2020

2nd International Conference on Natural Products & Traditional Medicine

From Mon, 16. November 2020 Until Tue, 17. November 2020

Dictyosphaeria cavernosa (Forssk.) Børgesen

Dictyosphaeria cavernosa (Forssk.) Børgesen




Ulva cavernosa Forssk., Valonia favulosa C. Agardh, Dictyosphaeria favulosa (C. Agardh) Decne. ex Endl.

Vernacular Names

English Green bubble weed (Australia).

Geographical Distributions

Dictyosphaeria cavernosa is widely spread in tropical and subtropical seas all over the world. In Southeast Asia, this alga is recorded in all countries except Cambodia, Vietnam and Brunei Darussalam.


Dictyosphaeria cavernosa is a sessile thallus, dark green, hollow, measuring 2-5(-12) cm in diametre, nearly spherical, irregularly lobed or partly collapsed and occasionally concrescent. It is sometimes rupturing, irregularly saucer-shaped, and reaches a diametre of 30 cm in deep water. It is attached by irregularly elongated (rhizoidal) cells. The surface of thallus consists of a single layer of large angular vegetative cells, which are 0.1-1(-4.5) mm in diametre. The connecting tenacular cells are numerous, measuring 35-50 µm x 60-65 µm, lenticular, with simple or bifurcate haptera and often with fringed distal margins.

The life cycle is diplohaplontic and isomorphic. The sporophytes are with 4 flagella zoospores. The male and female gametophytes produce biflagellate isogametes.

Ecology / Cultivation

Dictyosphaeria cavernosa is commonly found on rocks and reefs in intertidal zone, where it is however often poorly developed. A little lower down on the shore, it reaches full size, and it has also been recorded at depths of up to 55 m. The composition and texture of the rocky substrate greatly influence communities of this alga. It often grows on white, porous shell remains, which reflect light and have a high water-holding capacity. The alga can penetrate this substrate and then grow in semi-protected niches.

Line Drawing / Photograph



  1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No.15(1): Cryptogams: Algae.

Explore Further

Consumer Data

Consumer data including medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs and interactions and depletions.                                    

Read More
Professional Data

Professional data organized into medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs, T&CM herbs, formulas, health conditions, interactions and depletions.

Read More
International Data

We offer International linkages to provide extensive content pertaining to many facets of T&CM as well as Integrated Medicine. Please register for access.    

Read More