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Fagraea racemosa Jack ex Wallich Roxb.

Fagraea racemosa Jack ex Wallich Roxb.




Fagraea morindaefolia (Reinw.) Blume, Fagraea subreticulata Blume, Fagraea maingayi C.B. Clarke.

Vernacular Names


Membera gading, setebal (Peninsular), eng­kudu hutan (Sarawak).

English False coffee tree.
In­donesia Ki cankuda (Sundanese), melingu (Ja­vanese), kayu si markopi-kopi (Sumatra).
Thailand Thum bok, phawa nam, waa nam (Peninsular).
Philippines Balatbuaya (Filipino), kukodmon (Bikol).
Cambodia Han tuk (Koh Kong), nho pre (Kampot), prahout tuk (Kandal,Kompong Thom).

Geographical Distributions

Fagraea racemosa is found in Southern Burma (Myanmar), Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, throughout the Malaysian area, except for the eastern half of Java and the Lesser Sunda Islands, to the Solomon Islands and north­ern Australia.


Fagraea racemosa is a shrub or small to medium ­sized tree up to 25(-40) m tall while the bole measures up to 30 cm in diametre and without buttresses while the surface of the bark is smooth but becomes narrowly and deeply fissured. It is pale grey to dark grey-brown and the inner bark is yellow-brown.

The leaves are very variable, from broadly ovate via ellip­tical to obovate-oblong, lance-shaped or rarely even linear, measuring 5-50 cm x 1-23 cm, with rounded to acute apex and often short to long acuminate. The secondary veins are distinctly prominent below and with petiole 0.2-5 cm long. The stipules connate into an ocrea that surrounds the stem.

The inflorescence is terminal and usually droops. The pedicel is with bracteoles at the base. The petal tube is funnel-shaped, 2-4 cm long and with faintly 2-lobed stigma.

The fruit is nearly spherical to ellipsoid-ovoid, apiculate, bluish or greenish or red when ripens.

Ecology / Cultivation

Fagraea racemosa is highly variable and several forms have been distinguished. It is found in light to dense primary but more often secondary forests in swampy to dry soil, along rivers but also on pod­zolic sands, in savannas and “lalang” grassland vegetation. Locally, it is a conspicuous element of early secondary forests on waste lands and poor soils. The density of the wood is 700-870 kg/m3 at 15% moisture content.

Line Drawing / Photograph



  1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No.5(2): Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers.

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