Compilation of herbal plants (description, geographical distribution, taxonomy, line drawings), biodiversity and herbarium.

Read More
Research & Publication

Description of herbal and T&CM research, searchable publication and process from medicinal plant discovery to clinical trial in producing a high-quality registered herbal drug.

Read More
Traditional & Complementary Medicine (T&CM)


Definition and description of therapies, policy, training and education, research in the practise of (T&CM) and integrated medicine system.           

Read More


News Update

Announcement & Advertisement

Forthcoming Events

International Conference on Traditional Medicine and Phytochemistry 2021

From Mon, 12. July 2021 Until Wed, 14. July 2021

Asian Symposium on Medicinal Plants and Spices XVII (2020)

From Tue, 17. August 2021 Until Thu, 19. August 2021

Ficus religiosa L.

Ficus religiosa L.




Ficus caudata Stokes, Ficus superstitiosa Link, Ficus peepul Griffith.

Vernacular Names


Bo tree, bodhi tree, pipal tree.

Indonesia Bodhi.
Thailand Pho see ma haa pho (Central), yong (Shan-Mae Hong Son), salee (Northern).
Cambodia Dom pur.


Vietnam C[aa]y b[oof] d[eef], c[aa]y da, c[aa]y da b[oof] d[eef].

Geographical Distributions

Ficus religiosa is originally from the Himalayas to southern China (Yunnan), Vietnam and northern Thailand; nowadays is widely cultivated in the Malesian region but also in e.g. the Middle East, northern Africa and the United States.


Ficus religiosa, which can reach up to 20 m tall, is an evergreen or deciduous banyan or small to medium-sized tree. Its bark surface is fissured and grey.

The leaves are arranged spirally, ovate-cordate to ovate, measuring 6-26 cm x 4-16 cm, with subcordate to truncate base, caudate at apex, often with uneven or sinuous margin, with 6-9 pairs of lateral veins, hairless and with stipules up to 1.5 cm long. The figs are axillary, paired, sessile, nearly spherical, measuring 10-15 mm in diametre, smooth, pink, purple or black when ripening.

The flowers are with free tepals where the male flowers are arranged in 1 row, sessile and with 2-3 tepals while the female flowers are sesĀ­sile or with short stalk and 3-4(-5) tepals.

Ecology / Cultivation

Ficus religiosa occurs naturally in submontane forests.

Line Drawing / Photograph



  1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No.12(1): Medicinal and poisonous plants 1.

Explore Further

Consumer Data

Consumer data including medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs and interactions and depletions.                                    

Read More
Professional Data

Professional data organized into medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs, T&CM herbs, formulas, health conditions, interactions and depletions.

Read More
International Data

We offer International linkages to provide extensive content pertaining to many facets of T&CM as well as Integrated Medicine. Please register for access.    

Read More