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Garuga floribunda Decne

Garuga floribunda Decne




Garuga abilo Merr., Garuga littoralis Merr., Garuga pacifica Burkill.

Vernacular Names

English Garuga.
Indonesia Kayu kambing (Sulawesi, Moluccas), ki langit (Sundanese), wiyu (Javanese).
Papua New Guinea Garuga.
Philippines Bogo (Filipino), burus (Iloko), (g)abilo (Tagalog).

Geographical Distributions

The only Malesian species is Garuga floribunda Decne (synonyms: G. abilo Merr., G. littoralis Merr., G. pacifica Burkill) which is found from the Himalayas to Bangladesh, south-western China, Hainan, throughout Malaysia (except for Sumatra and very rare in Borneo (Sabah) and Peninsular Malaysia), the Solomon Islands, northern Australia, Vanuatu, Samoa and Tonga.


Garuga floribunda is a deciduous, small to medium-sized or occasionally fairly large tree that can reach up to 30(-40) m tall. The bole is usually straight, cylindrical, branchless for up to 12 m, measuring up to 120(-225) cm in diametre and with buttresses up to 3 m high. The surface of the bark is with adhering scales, grey or grey-white. The inner bark is firmly fibrous, pink and with little clear and resinous exudate.

The leaves are arranged spirally, crowded at the apex of twigs and imparipinnate. The caducous stipules are inserted to the petiole. There are 9-21(-31) leaflets which are nearly stalkless and crenate-serrate. The stipellae is often present and caducous.

The flowers are in an axillary panicle. They are bisexual, 5-merous and with a cupular receptacle. The sepals are free while the petals are with inflexed tips. There are 10 stamens that are inserted on the margin of the receptacle. The 10-lobed disk unites with the receptacle. The ovary is superior, 5-locular, with 2 ovules in each cell and with lobed stigma.

The fruit is a fleshy blue drupe, and with 1-5 1-seeded pyrenes. Seedling is with epigeal germination. The cotyledons are emergent which are palmately 3-or 5-lobed. The hypocotyl is elongated where the first 2 leaves are opposite and with 3 leaflets, while subsequently with leaves spirally arranged and with increasing number of leaflets.

Ecology / Cultivation

Garuga floribunda occurs in seasonal climates in primary and secondary, often periodically dry or very dry monsoon forests and thickets, and in lower montane rainforests, up to 1200 m altitude. It is also found in coastal forests, teak forests and on limestone hills, and grows in stony, sandy or clayey soils.

Line Drawing / Photograph



  1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No.5(3): Timber trees: Lesser-known timbers.

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