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Phyllanthus emblica L.


Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Emblica pectinata (Hook.f.) Ridl.

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia: Melaka, malaka, kayu laka, laka-laka, toalang, kik, Pokok melaka [1]
English: Indian gooseberry, emblic myrobalan, goose berry, Malacca tree [1],[2]
French: Emblic officinal [1]
Javanese: Kemlaka [3]
Sundanese: Malaka [3]
Sumatera: Balaka, balangka [3]
Thailand: Kam tawt, makam paun, makam pawai [3]
Arabic: Amlaj [3]
Nepal: Amala [2]
HIndi: Amla [3]

General Information


Phyllanthus emblica, a member of Euphorbiaceae family, is a tree of small or moderate size which is found in tropical Southeast Asia and throughout Malaysia and East Timor. [3]

Plant Part Used

Fruit, root, bark, leaf, seed. [3]

Chemical Constituents

The fruit contains gibberellins, lupeol, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside, emblicanin A and B, punigluconin and pedunculaginn. Also present are phyllanthin, zeatin, amlaic acid, corilagin, ellagic acd, 3,6-di-O-galloyl-glucose, ethyl gallate, 1,6-di-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, putranjivain A, digallic acid, phyllemblic acid, emblicol, and galactaric acid. [2]

Two new acylated flavanone glycosides; (S)-eriodictyol 7-O-(6”-O-trans-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside and (S)-eriodictoyl 7-O-(6”-O-galloyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside were isolated from the leaves and branches of P. emblica together with a new phenolic glycoside; 2-(2-methylbutyryl)phloroglucinol 1-O-(6’-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside, as well as 22 known compounds; naringenin, eriodictyol, kaempferol, dihydrokaempferol, quercetin, naringenin 7-O-glucoside, naringenin 7-O-(6”-O-galloyl)-glucoside, naringenin 7-O-(6”-O-trans-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside, myricetin 3-O-rhamnoside, 2-(2-methylbutyryl)-phloroglucinol 1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 1,2,4,6-tetra-O- galloyl-β-D-glucose, 1,2,3,4,5-penta- O- galloyl-β-D-glucose, decarboxyellagic acid, eriodictoyl 7-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, rutin, 3-O-methylellagic acid 4’-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, and tuberonic acid glucoside. [4]

Six phenolic constituents; L-malic acid 2-O-gallate, mucic acid 2-O-gallate, mucic acid 1,4-lactone 2-O-gallate, 3-O-gallate, 5-O-gallate, 3,5-di-O-gallate, and their respective methyl esters were isolated from the fruit juice of P. Emblica. [5]

The chemical investigation of this plant revealed that the roots contain four ester glycosides, named phyllemblicin A-D, and phyllemblic acids A and B, together with two phenolic glycosides, 2-carboxymethylphenol 1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and 2,6-dimethoxy-4-(2-hydroxyethyl)phenol 1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. While the aerial parts contain six ellagitannins, phyllemblinins A-F, the fruit juice consists of organic acid gallates, L-malic acid 2-O-gallate, mucic acid 2-O-gallate, 1-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, corilagin, chebulagic acid, elaeocarpusin and putranjivain A. In addition, seven other tannins and flavonoids, geraniin, phyllaemblinins C and E, prodelphinidin B1, prodelphinidin B2, (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate, and (S)-eriodictyol 7-[6-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]-β-D-glucoside were isolated from the branches and leaves. Further work on the aqueous acetone extract of the roots led to the isolation of a major component, proanthocyanidin polymer phyllemtannin. [6]

In a screening for antiatherogenic actives, two compounds, corilagin [ β-1-O-galloyl-3,6-(R)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-D-glucose] and 1,6-di-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, have been isolated  from the fruit of P. Emblica. [7]

Other chemicals present in P. emblica which include minerals and amino acids are alanine, arginine, ascorbic acid, aspartic acid, astragalin, β-carotene, β-sitosterol, Boron, Calcium, chebulagenic acid, Chloride, curcuminoides, Copper, corilagic acid, cystin, D-fructose, D-glucose, gallic acid ethyl ester, gallo-tannin, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, Iron, isoleucine, leucine, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, lupenone, lysine, Magnesium, Manganese, methionine, myo-inositol, myristic acid, niacin, Nitrogen, oleic acid, palmitic acid, pectin, phenylalanine, Phosphorus, phyllemblin, phyllemblinic acid, polysaccharides, Potassium, proline, protein, riboflavin, serine, Silica, Sodium, starch, stearic acid, sucrose, Sulfur, terchebin, thiamin, threonine, trigalloyl-glucose, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine, zeatin-nucleotide, and zeatin-riboside. [8]

Traditional Use:

It acts as a laxative, a carminative, a stomachic, an emetic, an astringent, an aperient, a hypoglycemic agent and a cardioprotectant. P. emblica is used to treat aging and general debility, peptic disease and non-ulcer dyspepsia. [3]

The fruits, either fresh, dried or stewed act as a tonic, a diuretic and a laxative. The fruits are useful in treating diabetes, cough, asthma, bronchitis, intermittent fevers and cardiac disorders. Furthermore, it is used to address anaemia, emaciation, strangury, haemorrhages, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia, erysipelas, skin disorders, leprosy, inflammations and premature greying. In India, the extract of the fruit is ingested to relieve dyspepsia. It is also taken to treat colic, flatulence, hyperacidity, peptic ulcer, haematemesis, diarrhoea, dysentery, anorexia, haemorrhoids, intestinal inflammation and constipation. The exudation from incisions made into the fruit is used as a collyrium in inflammatory eye conditions, as in conjunctivitis. The fermented liquor from the fruit is given to treat jaundice, dyspepsia and coughs. The fresh fruit is a laxative and is also used as poultices. In Ambon, the dried fruit is used to arrest dysentery. The poultice is applied on the head to heal headache and vertigo. The fruit is commonly used in the treatment of burning sensations in the body. [3]

The root is said to be an emetic. The root bark is useful in treating ulcerative stomatitis. The bark is useful in treating gonorrhoea, jaundice, diarrhoea and myalgia. The extract of the fresh bark, mixed with honey and turmeric, is given to treat gonorrhoea. Syrup of the plant mixed with lemon juice is used to treat dysentery. [3]

A decoction of the leaves is taken by Malays to treat fever. The leaves are also useful in treating conjunctivitis, inflammation, dyspepsia, diarrhoea and dysentery. The infusion of the leaf with fenugreek seeds is given to relieve chronic diarrhea. [3]

The seeds are used to treat asthma and abdominal disorders. The powdered seeds are used to treat asthma, bronchitis and biliousness. [3]

Pre-Clinical Data


Antiproliferative activity

The antiproliferative activity of nineteen compounds, which are the main constituents obtained from P. emblica, was determined by a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MMT) assay, using three tumor cell lines, MK-1, HeLa, and B16F10 cells. All the phenolic compounds showed strong inhibition against B16F10 cell growth at a concentration of less than 68mg/ml compared to HeLa and MK-1 cell growth. Norsesquiterpenoid glycosides, phyllemblicins B and C, exhibited significant inhibitory effects on the three tumor cell lines, in the order: B16F10> HeLa > MK-1. Compounds with a galloyl or pyrogalloyl moiety showed higher activity than the flavonoid. The results suggest that such compounds are worthy of consideration as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent. [6]

Anti-atherogenic activity

The anti-atherogenic activity of two soluble tannins of the herb P. emblica, corigalin and its analogue was studied to ascertain whether the mechanism of the effect is associated with oxidized-low density lipoprotein factor. It was found that both compounds were effective in inhibiting the progress of atherosclerosis by alleviating oxidation injury and by inhibiting ox-LDL-induced rat vascular smooth muscular cells proliferation. [7]

Antiulcerogenic activity

A methanolic extract of Emblica offinalis fruits, quantified for emblicanin A and B, and gallic acid, was investigated for its potential antiulcerogenic activity. The effect was assessed in different acute gastric ulcer models in rats induced by aspirin, ethanol, cold restraint stress and pyloric ligation and also healing effect in chronic acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers in rats. The experimental study managed to establish the ulcer protective and healing effects of the herb in different models and the activity seems to be due to both offensive and defensive mucosal factors. [9]

Antipyretic and analgesic activity

A study to evaluate the ethanol and aqueous extracts of E. officinalis fruits for possible anti-pyretic and analgesic activity in several experimental models reveals that a single dose of 500 mg/kg caused a significant lowering in rectal temperature of hyperthermic rats, comparable to that of aspirin. Furthermore, the same dosage of the extracts also caused an inhibition on writhing produced by acetic acid when administered intra-peritoneally in mice. [10]

Antisecretory and anti-ulcer activity

Antisecretory, anti-ulcer and cytoprotective studies, using various in vivo test models to substantiate the traditional claims that the use of E. officinalis is beneficial in gastric ailments, were undertaken. The results demonstrate that the ethanolic extract of the herb indeed has the capacity to significantly inhibit the basal gastric secretion and ulcerogenicity induced by pylorus ligation, indomethacin and noxious chemicals and by hypothermic restraint stress in rats. [11]

Antioxidant activity

1. Cytoprotective action on gastric ulcer:

P. emblica fruits display anti-oxidant activity in a study to investigate whether the anti-oxidant property could have any effect on gastric ulcer. In the study, a group of rats were given the butanol extract of the water soluble fraction of P. emblica fruits for 10 consecutive days. Thereafter, after 48h fasting they were given indomethacine to induce gastric ulceration for 2 consecutive days. The group of rats pre-treated with the butanol extract of the water soluble fraction of P. emblica fruits exhibited virtually no ulceration while the indomethacine-induced ulcerated group of rats showed a number of perforations with blood spots. All the experimental evidences point to the fact that the butanol extracts of the water soluble fraction of P. emblica fruits exerts cytoprotective action on gastric ulcer formation predominantly by its anti-oxidant property. [12]


2. Free and bound phenolic anti-oxidants

A comparison study was carried out on different proportions of free and bound phenolic anti-oxidants in E. officinalis and Curcuma longa. This study was carried out on free and bound fractions of ethyl acetate extracts of E. officinalis to eliminate the possibility of interference from the water-soluble ascorbic acid. The E. officinalis free and bound phenolics showed four- to ten-fold levels of anti-oxidant activity as evaluated by both free radical scavenging and reducing power assays compared to that of C. longa free and bound phenolics. The results indicate that the anti-oxidant activity of free and bound phenolic extracts of E. officinalis was contributed predominantly by phenolic acids. [13]

3. Cardioprotective effect

A study to investigate the anti-oxidant effect of bioactive tannoid principles of E. officinalis was carried out on cardiac ischaemic-reperfusion  induced (IRI) oxidative stress in rat heart. In this study, an emblicanin A and emblicanin B enriched fraction of fresh juice of E. officinalis fruits was extracted with aqueous methanol fraction and used for testing. The extract of E. officinalis tannoids (EOT) and vitamin E (VE, as standard oxidising agent) were administered orally twice daily for 14 consecutive days prior to the perfusion experiments. The results demonstrated that EOT and VE significantly reversed the effects of IRI on major anti-oxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) activities. This study supports the claim that anti-oxidants may be cardioprotective agents. [14]


Hypolipidaemic activity

A study specifically aimed to investigate the hypolipidaemic or antiatheroscerotic action of E. officinalis fruit juice in cholesterol-fed rabbits was carried out. The result shows that the administration of 5ml/kg body weight per rabbit for 60 days reduced serum cholesterol by 82%, while serum LDL, TG and phospholipids were decreased by 90%, 66% and 77%, respectively. E. officinalis juice-fed rabbits excreted more cholesterol and phospholipid, suggesting that the mode of absorption was affected. [15]

Hepatoprotective activity

A study on the protective effect of E. officinalis and Chyavanaprash extract, using CCl4 induced liver injury in rats, was carried out to determine the effect on lipid peroxidation and fibrosis. The result showed that the various biochemical changes produced in the liver and serum by acute and chronic CCl4 toxicity were reversed or protected by the administration of both extracts. [16]

The protective effects of P. emblica extract on ethanol-induced rat hepatic injury and its possible mechanism were investigated. The rats repeatedly treated with ethanol developed significant hepatic damage as observed from elevated serum level of AST, ALT, STG, TNF alpha and IL-1 beta together with centrilobular fatty changes and degeneration in the liver. The study suggests that the hepatoprotective mechanism of the herb extract may involve its anti-oxidant activity against the production of ROS. [17]

Cytoprotective and immunomodulating activity

An in vitro study was undertaken to determine the relative effects of E. officinalis fruit extracts with regard to cytoprotection and immunomodulation using rat splenocytes as model system. In this study an immunosuppressant agent, chromium (Cr) was used to enhance cytotoxicity, produce free radical, decrease glutathione peroxidase activity and diminish glutathione levels in cell culture of lymphocytes isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats. The cells were incubated with the E. officinalis fruit extracts and chromium. Results show that the presence of ethanol extract of E. officinalis fruits did not only increase lymphocytes proliferation but even restored the interleukin production. The E. officinalis fruit extract also inhibited both cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by chromium. The study concluded that the fruit extracts of E. officinalis fruit have cytoprotective and immunomodulatory properties which could be fully attributed to its anti-oxidant activity. [18]

Antitumor and anticancer activity

A study to evaluate antitumour activity of E. officinalis and Chyavanaprash was carried out in vivo and in vitro models. The mechanism of action especially on cell cycle regulation was also investigated.  The results indicated that an aqueous extract of fresh E. officinalis fruits at a concentration of 16.5 mg/ml was found to inhibit the growth of 50% of L929 cells significantly in culture. The E. officinalis extract was also found to significantly reduce solid tumours induced by Dalton lymphoma ascites (DLA) cells while having only a moderate effect on ascites tumour. The study also showed that the E. officinalis extract was found to inhibit cell cycle regulating enzymes cdc 25 phosphatase in a dose dependent manner indicating that the antitumour activity of E. officinalis may be due to its interference with cell cycle regulation. [19]

The results of the above study by Jose, Kuttan & Kuttan supported their earlier study in 1999. Then, a comparison study was carried out on three extracts of E. officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus and Picrorrhiza kurroa for their action on hepatocarcinogenesis induced by N-nitroso-diethylamine (NDEA) in rats. When NDEA was administered simultaneously with either E. officinalis or P. amarus or P. kurroa, all three herbal extracts showed effective protection of the liver from NDEA action as shown by the reduced levels of tumour marker enzymes and liver injury markers. [20]

Anti-inflammatory activity

A study has been undertaken to determine the immunomodulatory effects of E. officinalis and Evolvus alsinoides extracts in adjuvant induced arthritic (AIA) rat model. AIA is an erosive autoimmune polyarthritis involving both humoral and cell mediated responses that resemble human rheumatoid arthritis (RA).  The right hind footpad of all animals which were injected with Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) developed severe inflammation within 24 h. There was reduction in swelling and redness of inflamed areas when crude extracts of the fruits of E. officinalis or E. alsinoides were administered intraperitoneally. Both the herbal extracts were able to suppress the lymphocyte proliferation in response to AIA. The results of the study suggest that the extracts of E. officinalis or E. alsinoides may provide an alternative approach to the treatment of arthritis. [21]

Anti-diabetic activity

An anti-diabetic activity of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia Belerica and E. officinalis and their combination ‘Triphala’ and its relationship with their anti-oxidant property has been studied in alloxan-induced diabetic male albino rats. In this study, methanolic extracts (75%) of the fruits of T. chebula, T. Belerica and E. officinalis were dissolved in water and used for the in vivo and in vitro experiments. The results of the study showed all herbal extracts were found to scavenge the superoxides generated by photoreduction of riboflavin. The concentration of extract needed for 50% scavenging of superoxides by E. officinalis was 12.5 mg/ml indicating a strong anti-oxidant activity of E. officinalis extract. The single dose oral administration of the E. officinalis extract (100 mg/kg body wt) was found to reduce serum glucose level in normal rats by 29.52%. There was a significant fall in glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats 4 h after administration of E. officinalis (13.5%). Continued, daily administration of the extracts produced a sustained effect. [22]

Snake venom neutralising activity

An investigation on the snake venom neutralizing activity of the methanolic root extracts of Vitex negundo and E. officinalis was carried out in rodents. The viper venom-induced haemorrhagic, coagulant, anticoagulant and inflammatory activity investigated in in vitro and in vivo studies were significantly neutralized by both V. negundo and E. officinalis extracts. However, the degree of protection was always higher in in vitro studies indicating the possibilities of inactivation or precipitation of active venom components by the plant extracts. Identification of pure compounds and their mechanism of venom inhibition are being studied. [23]

Antitussive activity

The antitussive activity of E. officinalis Gaertn. was tested in conscious cats by mechanical stimulation of the laryngopharyngeal (LP) and tracheobronchial (TB) mucous areas of airways. The ethanolic extract of the fruits of E. officinalis was administered orally and dissolved in water for injection at two different doses (50 mg/kg body wt and 200 mg/kg body wt). The results showed that E. officinalis seems to have a good ability to inhibit mechanically-provoked cough, but only at higher doses (200 mg/kg body wt). A comparison of cough parameters from TB and LP regions revealed different abilities to influence the mechanisms regulating the quality and quantity of cough. The study concluded by reporting the presence of antitussive activity of E. officinalis in conscious cats, which is dose-dependent but higher than the antitussive activity of the commonly used non-narcotic antitussive dropropizine. [24]

Chondroproptective activity:

A pilot study to identify and quantitative new chondroprotective activities of P. emblica fruit powders was investigated on human arthritic cartilage in vitro. Unprocessd dry fruit powder (powder A) and powder obtained after hot water extraction spray drying of powder A (powder B) and extract of glucosamine sulphate were used in the experiments involving (i) enzymes hyaluronidase and collagenase type 2, (ii) an in vitro model of cartilage degradation set-up with explant cultures of articular knee cartilage from osteoarthritis patients, and (iii) in the explant model of cartilage matrix damage.  The results demonstrate the long-term chondroprotective activity of P. emblica powder B is comparable to that of glucosamine sulphate in terms of magnitude and potency. On the other hand, P. emblica powder A is notable in inducing a strong short-term chondroprotective response in cartilage explants from all osteoarthritic patients in which it was tested.  The aqueous extracts of both fruit powders which significantly inhibited the activities of hyaluronidase and collagenase type 2 in vitro is valuable pre-clinical evidence for an antiarthritic role for P. emblica fruit. [25]


No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Use in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation


No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation


Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation



No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation


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    2. Indian gooseberry-Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, gooseberry accessed on 10 November 2007.
    3. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur. Compendium of Medicinal Plants Used in Malaysia. 2002; 2:218.
    4. Zhang, Y-J. et al. Two New Acylated Flavanone Glycosides from the Leaves and Branches of Phyllanthus emblica. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2002;50:841-3.
    5. Zhang, Y-J. et al. New Phenolic Costituents from the Fruit Juice of Phyllanthus emblica. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2001; 49:537-540.
    6. Zhang, Y-J. et al. Antiproliferative Activity of the Main Constituents from Phyllanthus emblica. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2004; 27:251-5.
    7. Duan, W.,Yu,Y.& Zhang, L. Antiatherogenic Effects of Phyllanthus Emblica Associated with Corilagin and its Analogue.Yakugaku Zasshi. 2005; 125:587-91.
    8. Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases.
    9. Sairam, K. et al. Antiulcerogenic effect of methanolic extract of Emblica offinalis: an experimental study. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 82:1-9.
    10. Peranayagam, J.B. et al. Evaluation of anti-pyretic and analgesic activity of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004; 95:83-5.
    11. Al-Rehaily, A.J. et al. Gastroprotective effects of ‘Amla’ Emblica officinalis on in vitro test models in rats. Phytomedicine. 2002; 9:515-22.
    12. Bandyopadhyay S.K., Pakrashi, S.C and Pakrashi A. The role of antioxidant activity of Phyllanthus emblica fruits on prevention from indomethacin induced gastric ulcer. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 70: 171-6
    13. Kumar, G.S., Nayaka, H., Dharmesh S.M. & Salimath P.V. Free and bound phenolic antioxidants in amla (Emblica officinalis) and turmeric (Curcuma longa). J Food Composition and Analysis. 2006; 19:446-52
    14. Bhattacharya, S.K., Bhattacharya, A., Sairam, K and Ghosal, S. Effect of bioactive principles of Emblica officinalis on ischaemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative stress in rat heart. Phytomedicine. 2002; 9:171-4.
    15. Mathur,R. et al. Hypolipidaemic effect of fruit juice of Emblica officinalis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; 50:61-8.
    16. Jose, J.K. & Kuttan, R. Hepatoprotective activity of Emblica officinalis and Chyavanaprash. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 72:135-40.
    17. Pramyothin, P. et al. The protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. extract on ethanol induced rat hepatic injury. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006; 107:361-4.
    18. Sai Ram, M., Neetu, D., Yogesh, B., Anju, B. Dipti, P. et al. Cyto-protective and immunomodulating properties of Amla (Emblica officinalis) on lymphocytes: an in vitro study. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 81:5-10.
    19. Jose, J.K., Kuttan, G. & Kuttan, R. Antitumor activity of Emblica officinalis. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 75:65-9.
    20. Jose, J.K., Joy, K.L. & Kuttan, R. Effect of Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus and Picrorrhiza kurroa on N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Cancer Letters. 1999; 136:11-16.
    21. Ganju, L., Karan, D., Chanda, S., Srivastava, K.K., et al. Immunomodulatory effects of agents of plant origin. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2003; 57: 296-300.
    22. Sabu, M.C. and Kuttan, R. 2002. Anti-diabetic activity of medicinal plants and its relationship with their antioxidant property. J. Ethnopharmacol. 81. 155-60.
    23. Alam, M.I. & Gomes, S. Snake venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plants (Vitex negundo) and Emblica officinalis) root extracts. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2003; 86: 75-80.
    24. Nosàl’ovà, G., Mokrý, J. & Tareq Hassan, K.M. Antitussive activity of the fruit extract of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Euphorbiaceae). Phytomedicine. 2003; 10: 583-9.
    25. Sumantran, V.N., Kulkarni, A., Chandwaskar, R., Harsulkar, A., et al. Chondroprotective Potential of Fruit Extracts of Phyllanthus Emblica in Osteoarthritis. 2007; eCAM Advance Access published April 23, 2007: doi:10.1093/ecam/nem030. (7 pages).

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