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Leucas lavandulifolia Smith


Leucas linifolia Spreng, Phlomis zeylanica Blanco

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia Ketumbak, Ketumbit
China Xian Ye Bai Rong Cao
Indonesia Lenglengan, linkgo-lingkoan, nlenglenglan, plengan (Java); Pachi-pachi (Sunda)
Philippines Salita, karukansoli, solasolasihan (Tagalog)

General Information


Leucas lavandulifolia is found in the wastelands. The plant occurs in areas extending from India to southern China, the Mascarene Islands and Malaysia. It is rarely found in Malaysia as the climate is rather too wet. [1]

Plant Part Used

Leaf [1]

Chemical Constituents

The previously isolated constituents are acacetin and chrysoeriol. [2]

The aerial parts have been reported to contain a glycoside, linifoliside, and also essential oil and fatty alcohol. [3]

Traditional Used:

A decoction of the leaves is used as an antihelmintic. The decoction or poultice is used to treat ulcers, skin disorders and leprosy. The extract may be dropped into the eye and may also be used as a gargle. It is also used to treat snake bites. [1]

Pre-Clinical Data


Hepatoprotective activity

The chloroform extract of the aerial parts of the plant, L. lavandulifolia was investigated for its hepatoprotective property on D(+)galactosamine-induced hepatic injury in a rat model. The chloroform extract (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg) was administered orally in rats for 14 days. On the 14th day, liver damage was induced by injecting D(+)galactosamine at a dose of 400mg/kg. The liver damage was evaluated by estimating the liver function tests including the liver enzymes. The results demonstrated that there were changes in the biochemical parameters in D(+)galactosamine intoxicated rats when compared with control rats. The treatment with chloroform extract at 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg were showed significant decrease in liver enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, LDH), total cholesterol and total bilirubin in serum. This suggests that the chloroform extract of the aerial parts of the plant seem to have hepatoprotective activity in rats. [2]

Wound healing activity

L. lavandulifolia has been used in wound healing in Indian traditional practices. On the basis of this traditional practice and literature reference, a study was conducted in a rat model to evaluate the wound-healing activity of the plant extract. Two types of formulations were prepared from the methanolic extract of the plant material: (i) 5% (w/w) ointment and (ii) intra-peritoneal injection at a dose of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg). Both the injection and ointment methanol extract were examined in two types of wound model in rats: (i) the excision wound model and (ii) the incision wound model.  The results demonstrated that the L. lavandulifolia extract either in the form of ointment or injection produced a significant response in both wound types tested. The wound healing property of L. Lavandulifolia was speculated to be due to the presence of glycosides or due to the presence of terpenoids in the essential oil of the plant. [3]

Antitussive activity

The antitussive effect of the methanol extract of L. lavandulifolia was evaluated in an animal model using sulfur dioxide gas as an agent to induce cough in mice. The extract caused significant inhibition of cough similar to the standard drug, codeine phosphate, (10mg/kg) in a dose dependent manner. [4]

Hypoglycaemic activity

The L. lavandulifolia methanol extract was investigated for its antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The plant extract (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg doses) and glybenclamide (1 mg/kg) were administered simultaneously to STZ-diabetic rats. The findings showed that the extract caused a significant reduction of blood glucose concentrations in STZ-induced diabetic rats by 29.8% (p<0.001) when compared with control groups. [5]

Antidiarrhoeal activity

In a study to screen plants used traditionally for the treatment of diarrhoea, L. lavandulifolia was one of the four plants selected for evaluation of its anti-diarrhoeal properties in a rat model. Immediately after the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of L. lavandulifolia was administered orally at a dose of 400mg/kg, PGE2 was also administered orally (100mg/kg) before the animal was given castor oil to induce diarrhoea. The control rats received castor oil only. The results showed that the ethanol extract of the plant material significantly inhibited the frequency of defecation and the wetness of the faecal droppings compared to untreated control rats. The observation suggests that the ethanolic plant extract at a dose of 400mg/kg p.o. reduced diarrhoea by inhibiting gastrointestinal motility and PGE2-induced enteropooling. The results of this study ascertain the effectiveness of L. lavandulifolia as anti-diarrhoeal agent. [6]


No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation


No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation


Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation



No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

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  1)  Botanical Info


  1. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur. Compendium of Medicinal Plants Used in Malaysia. 2002. 2:95.
  2. Chandrashekar, K.S., Prasanna, K.S. & Joshi, A.B. Hepatoprotective activity of the Leucas lavandulaefolia on D(+)galactosamine-induced hepatic injury in rats. Fitoterapia. 2007. 78: 440-2, and references cited therein.
  3. Saha, K. et al. Wound healing activity of Leucas lavandulaefolia Rees. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1997. 56: 139-144, and references cited therein.
  4. Saha, K. et al. Studies on in vivo antitussive activity of Leucas Lavandulaefolia using a cough model induced by sulphur dioxide gas in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1997. 57: 89-92.
  5. Saha, K. et al. Hypoglycaemic activity of Leucas lavandulaefolia Rees. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Phytotherapy Research. 1997. 11: 463-6.
  6. Mukherjee, P.K. et al. Screening of anti-diarrhoeal profile of some plant extracts of a specific region of West Bengal, India. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1997. 60: 85-9.

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