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Chrysanthemum indicum

Synonyms

Dendranthema indicum (L.) Des Moul.

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia Chrysanthemum
English Mother's Daisy
Chinese Chu Hua, Hsiao Yeh Chu Hua, Huang Chu, Kan Chu Hua, Magarida, Pai Chu
Hua, Sima-Kan-Giku, Yeh Chu Hua.

General Information

Description

Chrysanthemum indicum is an herb with a head of small, single, yellow daisies. It has been taken orally or used externally to treat various clinically infectious diseases and dermatosis, such as influenza, tonsillitis, stomatitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, appendicitis, dermatitis and furuncle. It possesses antihyperkinesia, antiasthma, antitussive, antimicrobial, antiviral and parasiticidal activities [1].

Plant Part Used

Aerial parts (stems, leaves and flowers) and seeds.

Chemical Constituents

Three essential oils, the major constituents of which were 1,8-cineole, camphor, borneol and bornyl acetate[1][2]. The oil also contain α-terpineol, cis-sabinol, thujone, terpinen-4-ol, ρ-cymene, and linalool. Fresh, air-dried and processed flowers of C. indicum shared similar qualitative composition of essential oils, the difference was quantitative. The fresh flowers oil has a high percentage of 1.8-cineole (30.41%) and camphor (23.52%) although air-dried flowers oil has a high content of camphor [1]. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons α-copaene, b-elemene, b-caryophyllene, b-farnesene, b-humulene and germacrene-D, α-selinene, ar-curcumene, calamenene, y-cadinene and calacorene. Oxygenated sesquiterpenoid, T-muurololol is prominent in C. indicum [2]. The methanol extract of the flowers yielded flavone and flavone glycosides, and three eudesmane-type sesquiterpenes, kikkanols A, B, and C [3] and a trans-eudesmane type sesquiterpene, chrysanthemol [4].  The flowers also contain germacrane-type sesquiterpenes, kikkanols D, D monoacetate, E, F, and F [5], flavanone glycosides, (2S)- and (2R)-eriodictyol 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acids, and a phenylbutanoid glycoside, (2S, 3S)-1-phenyl-2,3-butanediol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and eight flavonoids [6].

Significant amounts of calcium (230mg/100g), phosphorus (158mg/100g) and sulphur (146mg/100g) were found in chrysanthemum flowers, while the magnesium (15.7mg/100g) content was comparable to that of common leafy vegetables like artichoke, asparagus, chicory and lettuce as determined via inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy [7]. The chrysanthemum flowers also content terpenoids, and phenolic compounds. [18]

Traditional Use:

The inflorescence or bud of C. indicum has a long history of use as a Chinese traditional medicine mainly for the treatment of inflammation, hypertensive symptoms, respiratory diseases and in the treatment or prevention of thrombosis [8][9] and as bactericide, antifungal and antiviral [1]. The aerial parts (stems, leaves and flowers) were taken orally or used externally to treat vertigo, and various clinically infectious diseases and dermatosis such as pneumonia, colitis, stomatitis,  tonsillitis, influenza, bronchitis, pneumonia, appendicitis, dermatitis, carbuncle and furuncle, and fever [1]. Flowers were commonly used as a tea to treat some eye diseases in Chinese traditional medicine [1]. In addition, C. indicum also able to treat vertigo, cephalalgia and eye inflammation in Japanese [17].

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology

Anti-inflammatory, antigout and antithrombotic activity

C. indicum extract prepared from the inflorescence or bud showed anti-inflammatory activity with the butanol soluble fraction showing more activity than other fractions [8]. The butanol fraction possessed anti-inflammatory, humoral and cellular immunomodulatory and mononuclear phagocytic activities, which were attributed due to the presence of flavonoids in the plant [8]. At a dose of 150mg/kg, p.o., the butanol soluble fraction of the herb caused significant inhibition of auricle edema in mice. Delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by 2,4-dinitro-fluorobenzene was significantly enhanced by the butanol extract (150 & 300mg/kg, p.o.) as was antibody generation by splenic cells of mice and IgG and IgM levels in mice sera in response to sheep red blood cells in cyclophosphamide-induced mice. Both these doses potentiated the function of the mononuclear phagocytic system in cyclophosphamide-induced mice [8]. Also, the effects of 70% ethanolic extract from C. indicum represented anti-inflammation in mice skin. The resulted showed the effectively reducing murine cutaneous inflammation induced by exposure to the protein kinase C activator and tumor promoter such as 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) [16].

Inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity (extract IC50, 22µg/mL; allopurinol as positive control IC50, 1.06µg/mL) was exhibited by the methanol extract of the flowers of C. indicum, thus providing a basis for the use of this medicinal plant for gout treatment [10].

Partial evidence for the empiric and traditional use of C. indicum in the treatment or prevention of thrombosis was provided by the observation that the aqueous extract was 10-12 times more potent on PAF-induced aggregation of human platelet rich plasma compared to ADP aggregation of rat platelet rich plasma [11].

Antimicrobial activity

The essential oils showed antimicrobial activity against many microorganisms which was attributed to their content of camphor and borneol, and the lower amounts of α-terpineol, terpinen-4-ol, ρ-cymene and linalool [1]. The oil from fresh flowers oil was believed to possess a strong antimicrobial effect because of its high percentage of 1.8-cineole (30.41%) and camphor (23.52%) [1]. Antibacterial activities of the essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were shown by disk diffusion tests [11].

Other effects

The methanolic extract from the flowers was found to show inhibitory activity against rat lens aldose reductase [3].

The methanolic extract and ethyl acetate-soluble portion from the flowers showed inhibitory activity against nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages with potent inhibitory activity shown by the acetylenic compounds and flavonoids from the ethyl acetate-soluble portion [5].

The water extract of the flowers has a coronary vasodilating action and a renal vasoconstricting action in the open-chest dog with the pharmacological profile of the water extract to be in part, similar to that of adenosine [12]. Intravenous administration of the aqueous extract (5-20mg/kg) produced a decrease in aortic blood pressure and increases in coronary blood flow, left ventricular dP/dt and heart rate in a dose-dependent manner while renal blood flow was initially decreased and then increased to the values above the pre-injection level.  A two-fold increase in coronary blood flow was elicited by the aqueous extract (13.8mg/kg) and by adenosine (29.5µg/kg) [12].

Toxicities

Sesquiterpene lactones from the crude extract of dried flowers gave strong reactions on epicutaneous applications to guinea pigs sensitized with an extract of C. indicum. One of the allergens was identified as a sesquiterpene lactone of the guaianolide type which was identical to arteglasin-A derived from Artemisia douglasiana Bess [13].

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

Positive patch tests in six persons were observed, most frequently with alantolactone (positive in all cases) and to arbusculin A, 8-deoxycumambrin, ambrosin, damsin and psilostachynin [14]. Chrysanthemum was an important suspected sensitizer in both occupationally and non-occupationally exposed Compositae-allergic patients [15].

Use in Certain Conditions:

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports:

No documentation

References

  1. Shunying Z,Yang Y,Huaidong Y,Yue Y and Guolin Z. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Chrysanthemum indicum. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2005; 96 (1-2): 151-158
  2. Uchio Y, Tomosue K, Nakayama M, Yamammura A and WAKI T. Constituents of the essential oil from three tetraploid species of chrysanthemum . Phytoxhemistry . 1981; 20(12): 2691-2693
  3. Yoshikawa M, Morikawa T, Murakami T, Toguchida I, Harima S, Matsuda H. Medicinal flowers. I. Aldose reductase inhibitors and three new eudesmane-type sesquiterpenes, kikkanols A, B, and C, from the flowers of Chrysanthemum indicum L. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1999; 47(3): 340-345
  4. Mou LY, Zhu LY, Lin ZY, Liang XT. Stereoselective total synthesis of chrysanthemol . J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2001; 3(2): 103-16
  5. Yoshikawa M, Morikawa T, Toguchida I, Harima S, Matsuda H. Medicinal flowers. II. Inhibitors of nitric oxide production and absolute stereostructures of five new germacrane-type sesquiterpenes, kikkanols D, D monoacetate, E, F, and F monoacetate from the flowers of Chrysanthemum indicum L. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2000; 48(5): 651-656
  6. Matsuda H, Morikawa T, Toguchida I, Harima S, Yoshikawa M. Medicinal flowers. VI. Absolute stereostructures of two new flavanone glycosides and a phenylbutanoid glycoside from the flowers of Chrysanthemum indicum L.: their inhibitory activities for rat lens aldose reductase . Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2002; 50(7): 972-975
  7. Chin CO. Direct analysis of plant minerals and comparison of extraction processes using ICP-AES. Food Chemistry. 1992; 45: 145-149
  8. Cheng W, Li J, You T and Hu C . Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of the extracts from the inflorescence of Chrysanthemum indicum Linné . Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2005; 101(1-3): 334-337
  9. Levy JV and Xie ZF. Effect of three Chinese herbal medicines (Ligustrazine, Chrysanthemum indicum, Salviae miltiorrhizae) on PAF and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Prostaglandins. 1988; 35(5): 842
  10. Kong LD, Cai Y, Huang WW, Cheng CH, Tan RX. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by some Chinese medicinal plants used to treat gout. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 73(1-2): 199-207
  11. Aridogan BC, Baydar H, Kaya S, Demirci M, Ozbasar D, Mumcu E. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of some essential oils . Arch Pharm Res. 2002; 25(6): 860-4
  12. Kato T, Noguchi K, Sakanashi M, Miyamoto Y, Suekawa M, Aburada M, Hosoya E. Effects of the water extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linn. on coronary and systemic hemodynamics in the dog. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 1986; 280(2): 241-53
  13. Hausen BM and Schulz, KH. Chrysanthemum allergy III. Identification of the allergens. Arch. Derm. Res. 1976; 255: 111-121
  14. Bleumink E, Mitchell JC, Geissman, TA and Towers GHC. Contact hypersensitivity to sesquiterpene lactones in Chrysanthemum dermatitis . Contact Dermatitis. 1976; 2(2): 81
  15. Paulsen E, Andersen KE, Hausen BM. Sensitization and cross-reaction patterns in Danish Compositae-allergic patients. Contact Dermatitis. 2001; 45(4): 197-204   
  16. Lee et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of Chrysanthemum indicum extract in acute and chronic cutaneous inflammation. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. May 2009;1(123):149-154
  17. Morikawa T. Search for bioactive constituents from several medicinal foods: hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, and antiallergic activities. Journal of Natural Medicines. April 2007;2(61): 112–126
  18. Cheo M. S., et al. Chrysanthemum indicum Linné extract inhibits the inflammatory response by suppressing NF-κB and MAPKs activation in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. April 2009; 3(122): 473-477
    Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
    1. Lee et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of Chrysanthemum indicum extract in acute and chronic cutaneous inflammation. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. May 2009;1(123):149-154
    2. Morikawa T. Search for bioactive constituents from several medicinal foods: hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, and antiallergic activities. Journal of Natural Medicines. April 2007;2(61): 112–126
    3. Cheo M. S., et al. Chrysanthemum indicum Linné extract inhibits the inflammatory response by suppressing NF-κB and MAPKs activation in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. April 2009; 3(122): 473-477

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