Podocarpus neriifolius D. Don

Podocarpus neriifolius D. Don




Podocarpus discolor Blume, Podocarpus leptostachya Blume, Podo­carpus neglecta Blume, Podocarpus deci­piens N.E. Gray, Podocarpus polyantha (Wasscher) Gaussen.

Vernacular Names

Malay­sia Podo bukit, jati bukit (Peninsular), ki beling (Sabah).
Indonesia Antok (Java), beberas (Sumatra), kayu cina (Irian Jaya).
Thailand Phayamai (General), phailamton (North-eastern), khunmai (Eastern).

Mala adelfa (General).

Myanmar Thitmin.
Laos Ka dong

Geographical Distributions

Podocarpus neriifolius is the most wide­spread species of the genus, occurring from Nepal, India, Indo-China and Thailand, throughout Malesia, towards the Solomon Islands and Fiji; al­so planted in gardens.


Podocarpus neriifolius is a medium-sized to fairly large tree which can reach up to 35(-45) m tall. Its bole is columnar, branch­less for up to 22 m and measuring up to 100 cm in diametre. It is  rarely spurred or even buttressed while the surface of the bark is greyish-brown. The foliage buds are ovate, acute or blunt and often with spreading scales.

The juvenile leaves are acuminate. The adult leaves are with a size of (7-)8-18 cm x (1.0-)1.1­1.8 cm, abruptly raised above midrib and measuring (0.4-)0.6-0.8 mm wide. The pollen cones are solitary or in two or three and sessile. The receptacle is red when mature.

Ecology / Cultivation

Podocarpus neriifolius is a variable species that is not always easily distinguishable from P. polystachyus. It occurs scattered but may be locally common in primary rainforests, generally on rocky hilltops, in sand­stone or latosols (Java) or in ultra basic soils, also near rivers, from sea level up to 2100 m altitude. It usually appears as an understorey tree with oc­casional specimens emerging into the canopy, but it is normally encountered as a canopy tree, e.g. in Java. The density of the wood is 415-790 kg/m3 at 15% moisture content.

Line Drawing / Photograph



  1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 5(2): Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers.