Azadirachta excelsa (Jack) Jacobs

Azadirachta excelsa (Jack) Jacobs




Melia excelsa Jack, Azadirachta integrifolia Merr.

Vernacular Names

Malaysia Sentang, limpaga (Sabah), Ranggu (Sarawak).
Indonesia Kayu bawang (General), surian bawang, bawang kunyit (Kalimantan), nibwak (Irian Jaya).
Papua New Guinea Azadirachta.
Philippines Maranggo (General), bird’s-eye kalantas (English), danggo (Tagalog).
Thailand Thiam, sadao-thiam.

Geographical Distributions

Azadirachta excelsa is found in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, the Philippines, Sulawesi, the Aru Islands and New Guinea.


A. excelsa is a large deciduous tree that can reach up to 50 m tall where its bole measuring up to 125 cm in diametre and with absent buttresses.

The leaves are up to 60(-90) cm long and with 7-11 pairs of leaflets. The leaflets are asymmetrical, lance-shaped to elliptical, measuring up to 12.5 cm x 3.5 cm and with entire margin.

The flowers are greenish-white. The fruit is oblong and measures 2.4-3.2 cm long.

Ecology / Cultivation

A. excelsa usually occurs in old clearings or old secondary forests, but it is also found in primary dipterocarp forests, e.g. in Kalimantan, up to 350 m altitude.

Line Drawing / Photograph



  1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 5(2): Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers.