Antioxidative and Cytotoxic Properties of the Leaf Extracts and Oil of Clausena Excavata


Wan-Nor I’zzah W.M.Z., Asmah R., Fauziah O. & Taufiq-Yap Y.H.
Faculty of Medicine, UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics
Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor
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Antioxidative and Cytotoxic Properties of the Leaf Extracts and Oil of Clausena Excavata


Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Seminar (MAPS 2008)


43rd October - 22nd October 2008

Place Held

The Legend Hotel, Kuala Lumpur


Traditionally, the herbal plant Clausena excavata is known to have some potential medicinal values. In this study, the crude extracts and essential oil from the leaves of C. excavata were investigated for their antioxidant and cytotoxic properties. Leaf samples of C. excavata were collected from Langgar, Kedah and extracted. The leaf oil of C. excavata was mainly made up of safrole (89.85%). The other minor components which were more than one percent were benzenemethanol, α, -4-trimethyl (3.13%), 3-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde(1.34%) and terpinolene(1.16%). Antioxidant activities of the crude extracts and oil were determined through two assays, namely, β-carotene bleaching assay and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. The methanol crude extract showed the most potent antioxidant activity in β-carotene bleaching assay (76.60 ± 2.36%) compared to the water extract (76.02 ± 2.07%) and essential oil (66.35 ± 1.17%). Similarly for the scavenging DPPH radical, methanol extract showed 88.88±1.04%, water extract 69.62±0.45% and essential oil 43.00±0.30% at the concentration of 4.96 mg/ml. For total phenolic content, the methanol extract demonstrated higher phenolic content than the water extracts. The results, expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAEs), were 100.61 mg of GAEs/g for methanol extract and 52.53 mg of GAEs/g for water extract. In this study, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was carried out to determine the cytotoxic activity through the growth of viable cell. The methanol extract was found to inhibit 50% cervical (HeLa) cancer cell proliferation at the concentration 34.51±0.28 µg/ml. The methanol extract, water extract and essential oil Inhibited 50% MCF-7 cell proliferation at concentrations 36.50±0.41, 95.00±0.58 and 59.00±0.58 µg/ ml. Only the methanol extract showed inhibition of HepG-2 (IC50 = 53.03±0.35 µg/ml) and CAOV3 (IC50 = 79.00±0.47 µg/ml) cell proliferation. From the results, it could be concluded that the methanol extract possessed the best activity compared to water extract and essential oil. The study suggested that the anti-oxidative properties of C. excavata could be one of the mechanisms of its cytotoxic properties against cancer cell lines.


CIausena excavata; essential oil; β-carotene bleaching; DPPH radical scavenging; phenolic Content; MTT assay


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Think Global, Act Local: A New Paradigm In Malaysian Herbal Industry (Prof. Emeritus Dr. Abdul Latif Ibrahim-UNISEL)