Compilation of herbal plants (description, geographical distribution, taxonomy, line drawings), biodiversity and herbarium.

Read More
Research & Publication

Description of herbal and T&CM research, searchable publication and process from medicinal plant discovery to clinical trial in producing a high-quality registered herbal drug.

Read More
Traditional & Complementary Medicine (T&CM)


Definition and description of therapies, policy, training and education, research in the practise of (T&CM) and integrated medicine system.           

Read More


News Update

Announcement & Advertisement

Forthcoming Events

Annual Congress on Traditional Medicine

From Wed, 12. May 2021 Until Thu, 13. May 2021

5th International Conference on Medical and Health Informatics (ICMHI 2021

From Fri, 14. May 2021 Until Sun, 16. May 2021

International Conference on Traditional Medicine and Phytochemistry 2021

From Mon, 12. July 2021 Until Wed, 14. July 2021

Asian Symposium on Medicinal Plants and Spices XVII (2020)

From Tue, 17. August 2021 Until Thu, 19. August 2021

Cistus ladaniferus

Cistus ladaniferus

[span class=alert]In regards to the Traditional Use and Therapeutic Action sections of Essential Oils, the oils are rated as is standard practice in the French school of aromatherapy and others. The ratings ranked from one (+) to four (++++) with four indicating the highest value, indicate the oil’s therapeutic value from a practicing clinician’s point of view. The French rating system mentioned are obtained from this book reference entitle ‘Les Cahiers Pratiques D'Aromatherapie Selon L'Ecole Francaise’ (Authors: Francine Baudry, Pascal Debauche & Dominique Baudoux). However, further clarification might be required and will be updated once additional information of the rating system is obtained.[/span]

Family Name


Genus Name


Vernacular Name

Labdanum, gum rockrose, rockrose.

Original Habitat

This plant is found in Mediterranean regions such as Portugal, Spain, Italy and France (Corsica).[1] This is a small, hardy shrub. The leaves have tiny hairs with a resin that emits a warm, pleasant smell.[2] This resin, called Labdanum, has been around since the ancient Egyptian times. This resin, among others, was found in archeological remains and used in the mummification process.[3]

Plant Part Used

Leaved branches


The essential oil of C. ladaniferus is used in the fragrance industry due to its deep woody or balsamic scent. It is also used as a fragrance in some skin care products. In aromatherapy it is used as single oil and in more complex formulations. 


When the twigs of Cistus ladaniferus are boiled, labdanum gum is obtained. This gum is then steam distilled to produce Labdanum oil.[4] Labdanum oil is yellow, but turns brown quickly when exposed to the air. The oil is heavy and has a woody or balsamic aroma and deep undertones.

Chemical Constituents

Terpenes: Alpha-pinene (45-50%), camphene (5%)
Terpenic acids: Borneol (2%)
Phenol: Eugenol (2%), thymol
Esters: Linalyl acetate (2%), methyl benzoate
Ketones (5%): Fenchone, acetophenone [4][5][6][7][8][9]

Medicinal Uses

Antiviral +++
Stimulates the immune system +++
Anti-hemorrhagic  +++
Cicatrizing agent +++
Stimulates and regulates the central nervous system ++

Traditional Use

Child's illness: Chickenpox, measles, scarlet fever, whooping-cough +++
Autoimmune diseases, polyarthritic rheumatoid ++++
Arteritis, hemorrhage +++
Neurovegetative dystonia ++

The resin was also used to tone the skin in Egypt.

To support the lymphatic system, C. ladaniferus may be combined with Laurel nobelis and carrier oil and applied topically. May be used to stop bleeding and is often used to stop bleeding when shaving.[10]

Contraindications and Precautions

Identified as a mild skin irritant [11] with case studies of sensitization.[12]



[span class=alert]Keep out of reach of children as oils are highly concentrated.Essential oils are irritating to the eyes.  Avoid contact with eye area.Always dilute essential oils with carrier oil, lotion, cream or gel even when using in diffuser or bath.Essential oils are sometimes prescribed to be used internally, but should only be used internally under professional supervision.[/span]


  1. Bazdi B, et al. Composition of the essential oils of Cistus ladaniferus and C. monspeliensis from Morocco. J Essen Oil Res. Sep2005;17(5):553-555.
  2. Hedrick UP. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. New York:Dover Publications; 1972.
  3. Hamm S. Headspace solid phase microextraction for screening for the presence of resins in Egyptian archaeological samples. J Sep Sci. Feb2004;27(3):235-243.
  4. Bauer K, Garbe D, Surburg H. Common fragrance and flavor materials: preparation, properties and uses. Germany: Wiley VCH; 1997.
  5. Vernin G. Mass spectra and Kovats indices of some phenylpropanoic acid esters found in the essential oil of Cistus ladaniferus L. Journal of Essential Oil Research. 1993;5(5):563-569.
  6. Peyron L, Alessandri S, Alessandri A. Leaf oil of Cistus ladaniferus L. grown in Corsica. Parfums, Cosmetiques, Aromes. 1986;67:59-67.
  7. Buenadicha P. The essential oil of Cistus ladaniferus. Farmacognosia. 1964;24(3-4):85-104.
  8. Fesneau M. The study of Cistus ladaniferus of Spain. Industries de la Parfumerie. 1950;5:551.
  9. Sabetay S, Trabaud L. Some constituents of the oil of cistus from Est.acte.erel. Industries de la Parfumerie. 1950;5:548-549.
  10. Schnaubelt K. Advanced aromatherapy: the science of essential oil therapy.  Vermont: Healing Arts Press; 1995.
  11. Tisserand R, Balacs T. Essential oil safety. Churchill Livingston Press; 2006.
  12. Larsen WG. Cosmetic dermatitis due to a perfume. Contact Dermatitis. 1(3):142-145.

Explore Further

Consumer Data

Consumer data including medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs and interactions and depletions.                                    

Read More
Professional Data

Professional data organized into medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs, T&CM herbs, formulas, health conditions, interactions and depletions.

Read More
International Data

We offer International linkages to provide extensive content pertaining to many facets of T&CM as well as Integrated Medicine. Please register for access.    

Read More