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Pogostemon cablin

Synonyms

Betonica officinalis, Mentha cablin, Pogostemon mollis, Pogostemon tomentosus, Pogostemon patchouli, Pogostemon heyeanum, Pogostemon nepetoides, Pogostemon battakianus, Pogostemon patchouly, Pogostemon sauvis, Pogostemon comosus, Pogostemon javanicus 

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia

Dhalum Wangi, Tilam Wangi, Nilam

English Patchouli
Indonesia Nilam Wangi (General), Nilam (Acheh), Singalon (Batak)
Thailand Phimsen (Bangkok)
Vietnam (Ho[aws]c h[uw][ow]ng
Philippines Kabling (Tagalog); Katluen (Bisaya) Kadlum (Bikol, Bisaya, Sulu)
China Guang Huo Xiang
Korea Hyangdulkkaephul
India Pachi (Sanskrit); Pachauli (Hindi); Pachapat, Patchouli (Bengali); Pachila, Kattam (Malayalam); Pachetene (Kannada); Pacha, Sugandhi pandi (Gujarati); Panch (Marathi)
french Patchouli
Spanish Pachuli [3] [4] [6]

General Information

Description

Pogostemon cablin is a member of the Laminaceae family. It is a herbaceous, erecr, branched, pubescent aromatic herb, that can grow up to 1 m high. It has square stem with swelling at the nodes. The leaves are oval in shape measuring about 10 cm long and wide, serrated with doted glands beneath sitting on a petiole that is about 8 cm long. The spikes are terminal or axillary, dense, sometimes interrupted, measuring 8-15 cm long. Its flowers reluctently and flowers are white to light purple in colour, very small, irregular, bisexual, hypogynous; while the calyx measures 5-6.5 mm. The corolla lobes obtuse measures 6-9 mm, white to purple in colour blotched on all segments. The filaments violet in colour and the bracts as long as calyx. [5]

Plant Part Used

Leaves [4] [10]

Chemical Constituents

Patchouli alcohol, pogostol, , , nor-patchoulinol, seychellene, nor-patchoulinol, , patchoulipyridine, methylchavicol, , limonene, pinene, p-methoxycinnamaldehyde, 1,10-epoxy-alphabulnesene; 1-alpha,5-alpha-epoxy-alpha-guaiene; 1-beta,5-beta-epoxy-alpha-guaiene; 2-methyl-butyric-acid; 2-methylhexanoic-acid; 3-octanone; 4-methyl-pentanoic-acid; a-bulnesene; a-bulnesene oxide; a-bulnesone; a-guaiene; a-guaiene oxide; a-patchoulene; a-pinene; anethole; anisaldehyde; apigenin; apigenin-7-o-beta-d-(-6"-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside; apigenin-7-o-beta-glucoside; azulene; benzaldehyde; b-elemene; b-patchoulene; b-pinene; bulnesol; cadinene; camphene; caryophyllene; caryophyllene-oxide;     cinnamaldehyde; cis-2-pentylcyclopropylcarboxylic-acid; cycloseychellene; d-patchoulene; dehydracetic-acid;     dhelwangin; dimethylphenol; epiguaipyridine; epoxycaryophyllene; eugenol; eugenol cinnamic aldehyde; g-patchoulene; guaiacol; guaipyridine; heptanoic-acid; humulene; limonene; nonanoic-acid; nordehydropatchoulol;   norpatchoulenol; o-cresol; octanoic-acid; ombuine; p-vinyl-phenol; pachypodol; patchouli-alcohol;    patchoulipyridine; pentanoic-acid; phenol; pogostol; pogostone; rhamnetin; seychellene; tannin; trans-2-pentylcyclopropylcarboxylic-acid. [1] [5] [8] [9]

Traditional Used:

Gastrointestinal Diseases

P. cablin is used in tradtional Chinese medicine to treat nausea, vomiting diarrhoea and stomachache. [8] [10]

Dermatological Diseases

The essential oil of P. cablin is considered a cell rejuvenator and antiseptic. On this basis it is used to treat acne, eczema, inflammed, cracked or mature skin and dandruff. It’s antifungal property is being used in the treatment of athlete’s foot. [2] Decoction of the leaves is used as a bath to reduce body odour. [4]

Gynaecological Diseases

The leaves and tops of P. cablin is said to be good for menstrual problems. Infusion of the leaves is given for dysmenorrhoea and is also considered an emmenagogue.[10]

Other uses

The essential oil of P. cablin is said to counter nervousness and depression by putting problems into perspective and releasing pent-up emotions. It is also an aphrodisiac. In Malaysia it is used to relieve headache, cold and fever and also considered and antidote for snake bites and insect bites. Infusion of the leaves, dried tops or roots is used for treating dysuria. [10]

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology

Cytotoxic activity

The aerial parts of P. cablin extract yields Licochalcone which exhibit cytotoxicity and PI-PLC gamma 1 inhibition activity. When this compound is treated with promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) terminal differentiation with generation of monocyte was induced. [12] The methanol extract showed suppressive effect on umu gene expression of SOS response in Salmonella typhimurium TA 1535/pSK1002 against metagen 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide (furylfuramide). The suppressive compounds isolated were identified as 7,4'-di-O-methyleriodictyol (1), 7, 3',4'-tri-O-methyleriodictyol (2), and 3,7,4'-tri-O-methylkaempferol. It was found that compounds 1 & 3 suppressed >50% of the SOS-inducing activity. [13]

Antiemetic activity

Traditionally infusion of P. cablin leaves were used to treat nausea and vomiting. In a Bioassay-guided fractionation of antiemetic extracts 5 compounds isolated from the n-hexane extract exhibited anti-emetic effects. They are patchouli alcohol, pgostol, stigmast-4-en-3-one, retusin, and pachypodol. [14]

Antioxidant activity

P. cablin was found to effectively proctect human neuroglioma cell line A172 against both necrotic and apoptotic cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide. This effect was dose dependent. The mechanism of action is via prevention  of depletion of ARTP and activation of poly ADP-ribose polymerase. It also prevented H2O2-induced release if cytochrome C into cytosol. It is a powerful scavenger of intracellular ROS. [15]

Platelet activating factor (PAF) inhibition activity

Alpha-bulnesene from the water extract of P. cablin showed a potent and dose-dependent inhibitory effect on platelet-activating factor (PAF) and arachidonic acid induced rappbi platelet aggregation. This inhibition is by competitively inhibiting [(32)H]PAF bindinh to the PAF receptor and by inhibition of PAF-induced intracellular Ca2+ increase in fluo-3/AM-loaded platelets. It also inhibited AA-induced thromboxane B(2)(TXB(2)) formation and prostaglandin E2 formation. Thus, the inhibitory effect of alpha-bulnesene on platelet aggregation is two prong i.e. specific chemical blockade of PAF-induced intracellular signal transduction and interference of cyclo-oxygenase activity resulting in decrease thromboxane formation. [16] [17]

Antimicrobial activity

Acetone extract of P. cablin was found to posses trypanocidal activity. [18]

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity

The methanol extract of P. cablin was able to decrease acetic acid-induced writhing responses and licking time in phase two formalin test. There is also significant reduction of oedema in Carrageenan-induced paw inflammation. Lu et.al demonstrated that the extract decreased the level of malondialdehyde in the edematous paw by increasing the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, in the liver and decreasing the cyclo-oxidase 2 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha activities in the oedematous paw. [19]

Toxicities

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

Pogostemon cablin oil or its infusion with basil seeds can cause loss of appetite, loss of sleep and nervous attacks. [7] [11]

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

The anti-PAF activity may interfere with anitcoagulant therapy thus patients on this form of therapy should consult their doctors before using this for whatever reason. [16] [17]

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

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   1) Cultivation

  2) Essential Oil

References

    1. Dr. M. Daniel Medicinal Plants; Chemistry and Properties Science Publishers New Hampshire 2006 pg. 84
    2. H. Panda Herbal Soaps and Detergents Handbook National Institute of Industrial Research Delhi pg. 100
    3. LPA Oyen and Nguyen Xuan Dung Prosea: Plant Resources of South-east Asia 19, Essential-oil Pants. PROSEA Foundation Bogor 1999 pg. 151-152
    4. H. Arief Hariana Tumbuhan Obat dan Khasiatnya 2 Penebar Swadaya Jakarta 2008 pg. 145
    5. Baby P. Skaria Aromatic Plants: Vol. 01. Horticulture Science Series Laxmi Art Creations New Delhi 2007 pg. 127
    6. Peter Hanelt Mensfeld’s Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops Volume 2 Springer-Verlag Berlin 2002 pg. 1967
    7. Patchouli. In: Grieve M. A Modern Herbal. Botanical.com website. (http://botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/p/patcho15.html) Accessed on 25
    8. Micheal Tierra Planetary Herbology Lotus Press Twin Lakes 1992 pg. 251
    9. Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Database (http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/duke/farmacy2.pl) Accessed 25
    10. Philippine Medicinal Plants – Kabling/Pogostemon cablin/patchouli: Herbal Therapy/Philippine Alternative Medicine (http://www.stuartxchange.org/Kabling.html) Accessed 29th August 2010
    11. (http://www.bpi.da.gov.ph/Publications/mp/pdf/k/kablin.pdf) Accessed on 29th August 2010
    12. Park EJ, Park HR, Lee JS, Kim J. Licochalcone A: an inducer of cell differentiation and cytotoxic agent from Pogostemon cablin. Planta Med. 1998 Jun;64(5):464-6.
    13. Miyazawa M, Okuno Y, Nakamura S, Kosaka H. Antimutagenic activity of flavonoids from Pogostemon cablin. J Agric Food Chem. 2000 Mar;48(3):642-7.
    14. Yang Y, Kinoshita K, Koyama K, Takahashi K, Tai T, Nunoura Y, Watanabe K. Anti-emetic principles of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. Phytomedicine. 1999 May;6(2):89-93.
    15. Kim HW, Cho SJ, Kim BY, Cho SI, Kim YK. Pogostemon cablin as ROS Scavenger in Oxidant-induced Cell Death of Human Neuroglioma Cells. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2008 Jan 7. [Epub ahead of print]
    16. Hsu HC, Yang WC, Tsai WJ, Chen CC, Huang HY, Tsai YC. Alpha-bulnesene, a novel PAF receptor antagonist isolated from Pogostemon cablin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Jul 7;345(3):1033-8. Epub 2006 May 8
    17. Tsai YC, Hsu HC, Yang WC, Tsai WJ, Chen CC, Watanabe T. Alpha-bulnesene, a PAF inhibitor isolated from the essential oil of Pogostemon cablin. Fitoterapia. 2007 Jan;78(1):7-11. Epub 2006 Sep 23.
    18. Kiuchi F, Matsuo K, Ito M, Qui TK, Honda G. New sesquiterpene hydroperoxides with trypanocidal activity from Pogostemon cablin. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2004 Dec;52(12):1495-6.
    19. Lu TC, Liao JC, Huang TH, Lin YC, Liu CY, Chiu YJ, Peng WH. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Methanol Extract from Pogostemon cablin. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009 Nov 20. [Epub ahead of print]

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