Compilation of herbal plants (description, geographical distribution, taxonomy, line drawings), biodiversity and herbarium.

Read More
Research & Publication

Description of herbal and T&CM research, searchable publication and process from medicinal plant discovery to clinical trial in producing a high-quality registered herbal drug.

Read More
Traditional & Complementary Medicine (T&CM)


Definition and description of therapies, policy, training and education, research in the practise of (T&CM) and integrated medicine system.           

Read More


News Update

Announcement & Advertisement

Forthcoming Events

Annual Congress on Traditional Medicine

From Wed, 12. May 2021 Until Thu, 13. May 2021

5th International Conference on Medical and Health Informatics (ICMHI 2021

From Fri, 14. May 2021 Until Sun, 16. May 2021

International Conference on Traditional Medicine and Phytochemistry 2021

From Mon, 12. July 2021 Until Wed, 14. July 2021

Asian Symposium on Medicinal Plants and Spices XVII (2020)

From Tue, 17. August 2021 Until Thu, 19. August 2021

Fagraea fragrans


Cyrtophyllum lanceolatum, Cyrtophyllum peregrinum, Fragraea wallichiana, Fragraea cochinchinensis, Fragraea sororia, Fragraea gigantea  [1][5]

Vernacular Names:


Tembusu hutan, Tembusu Padang, Tembusu Tembaga, Lemesu, Meriang, Reriang, Temasuk (Sabah)

English Ironwood

Ki Badak (Sundanese); Kayu Tammusu (Sumatera); Ambinaton (Kalimantan)


Kankrao (Central); Man Pla (Northern); Thamsao (Peninsular)


Urung (General); Dolo (Tagbanua); Susulin (Tagalog)


Anan, Ahnyim

Cambodia Tatraou
Laos Man pa
Vietnam Trai
Fiji Islands


General Information


Fagraea fragrans is a member of the Logan1aceae family. It is a medium sized tree growing up to 55m with numerous spreading branches. The leaves are opposite, decussate, patent, with short petiole. It is broad-lanceolate, taper, obtuse-pointed, entire and smooth on both sides. They measures 10-12cm long and 3cm wide. The petioles are short, smooth, enlarged at the base into a stem-clasping ring encrusted with clear yellow resin when dried. The corymbs peduncled, axillary nearly as long as the leaves, decompound, decussate and smooth. The flowers are numerous, fragrant, large and coloured whitish-yellow. The bractes are small and permanent. The calyx beneath, deeply five-parted, imbricated, smooth, many times shorter than the tube of the corola. The corola one petalled. The tube between campanulate and infundibuliform. The border contorted, five-parted; divisions ovate-oblong, expanding. The filaments are 5 in numbers ascending, inserted in the mouth of the tube, and much longer than the corolla. The anthers are incumbent. The germ above, ovate in shape. The style is the length of the stamen. The stigma enlarged and entire. The berry oval in shape, a little pointed, smooth, red, pulpy, two-celled. The seeds several in each cell, angular and scabrous. [6]

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Chemical Constituents

Fagraldehyde; gentiopicroside; sweroside; swertiamarin; gentianine; pinoresinol, naucledal, gentiogenal. [4]

Traditional Used:

Gastrointestinal diseases

The Kadazan use the leaves and bark to treat pancreatitis and gastric pains by applying the pounded leaves and bark over the lesion while at the same time drinking a decoction of the same. The bark is also used in the treatment of jaundice where the powdered dried bark is taken. In neonatal jaundice a decoction of the bark is given instead. [1]

Antimalarial therapy

The decoction of the leaves is a remedy for dysenteri. It is used to treat malaria whereby a decoction of either the leaves, bark, or root. [1]

Gynaecological diseases

The leaves of F. fragrans together with roots of Amaranthus sp. is boiled and given 5 to 6 days after the end of menstruation to ensure subsequent ease of flow. [1]

The bark is febriguge. [2]

Pre-Clinical Data


Antimicrobial activity

Antiviral activity

Sweroside was isolated from the stem bark, roots, fruits and stems of F. fragrans. It was found to have mild anti-HSV-1 (Herpes simples virus type 1)  activity. [7] [8]

Antibacterial activity

Pinoresinol, naucledal and gentiogenal were isolated from various parts of F. fragrans showed antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Ra). [8]

Antimalarial activity

A secoiridoid aglycone isolated from the bark and leaves of F. fragrans called fagraldehyde was found to be weakly active against Plasmodium falciparum.[7] Pinoresinol, another isolate of Fagraea fragran Roxb., also showed anti-plasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum (K1 strain). [8]

Cytotoxic activity

Naucledal and gentiogenal was isolated from F. fragrans. They were found to exhibit cytotoxicity towards NCI-H187 cell lines. [8]


No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation


No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation


Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation



No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

Read More

  1) Botanical Info


    1. Kamaruddin Mat-Salleh, A. Latif Tumbuhan Ubatan Malaysia Pusat Pengurusan Penyelidikan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Bangi 2002 pg. 519
    2. K.M. Nadkarni, A.K. Nadkarni Dr. K.M. Nadkarni’s Indian Materia Medica., Volume 2 Popular Prakashan Pvt. Ltd. 1976 pg. 534
    3. Alexander L. Howard A Manual of the Timbers of the World – Their Characteristics and Uses R & R Clark Ltd. Edinburgh 1934 pg. 20
    4. Richard Helmuth Fred Masnke The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Physiology, Volume 10 Academic Press Inc. New York 1968 pg.561
    5. Friedrich Anton Wilhelm Miquel Flora van Nederlandsch Indi’e, Volumes 1 – 2 pg. 376
    6. William Roxburgh Flora Indica; or Description of Indian Plants, Volume 1 W. Thacker & Co. Calcutta 1832 pg. 461 – 462
    7. Jonville MC, Capel M, Frédérich M, Angenot L, Dive G, Faure R, Azas N, Ollivier E. Fagraldehyde, a secoiridoid isolated from Fagraea fragrans. J Nat Prod. 2008 Dec;71(12):2038-40.
    8. Samneang Apisantiyakom Isolation and Identification of Bioactive Chemical Constituents of the roots of Bauhinia saccocalyx Pierre and Fagraea fragrans Roxb. ( [ Accessed on 8th October 2010]

      Explore Further

      Consumer Data

      Consumer data including medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs and interactions and depletions.                                    

      Read More
      Professional Data

      Professional data organized into medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs, T&CM herbs, formulas, health conditions, interactions and depletions.

      Read More
      International Data

      We offer International linkages to provide extensive content pertaining to many facets of T&CM as well as Integrated Medicine. Please register for access.    

      Read More