Mali. Gene patents and the Genetic Resource Recognition Fund: Sharing benefit from use of plant genetic resources by agro-biotechnological inventions and traditional agricultural practices


The study focuses on the role of intellectual property right in the benefit-sharing arrangement on Xa21 gene which derived from a wild rice originated from Mali (Oryza longistamina). Scientist in India found that Oryza longistamina was resistance towards blight disease. Xa21 locus was further discovered by International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in Philippines as the main reason of resistance characteristic. The gene was eventually isolated, cloned and patented at University of California at Davis, USA. A Genetic Resource Recognition Fund was established at UC Davis to manage on benefit sharing between stakeholders in Mali and other developing countries. The detail about the case study can be obtained from the following link: 

in this scope


Policies, Laws and Standards by countries​

Convention and Treaties​

Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)​