Prolonged granulocyte activation, as well as hypoxanthine and free radical production after open heart surgery in children


Pesonen FJ




Intensive Care Med


OBJECTIVE: To investigate granulocyte activation, as well as hypoxanthine and free radical production in children during the first day after cardiopulmonary bypass. DESIGN: A prospective study of pediatric patients undergoing either cardiac surgery with a cardiopulmonary bypass or thoracotomy and extracardiac vascular surgery not requiring a cardiopulmonary bypass. SETTING: Operative and intensive care units, Children’s Hospital, University of Helsinki, Finland. PATIENTS: Seven consecutive patients undergoing elective correction of a ventricular septal defect and six patients undergoing extracardiac surgery for ligation of a patent ductus arteriosus or repair a coarctation of the aorta. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of myeloperoxidase (140-334 micrograms/l preoperatively, 460-1692 micrograms/l at 0.2 h after declamping, 471-1386 micrograms/l at 0.5 h after declamping) and lactoferrin (77-258 micrograms/l preoperatively, 533-1783 at 0.2 h, 404-1482 micrograms/l at 0.5 h) as markers of granulocyte activation, and hypoxanthine (0-5.7 mumol/l preoperatively, 4.3-17.0 mumol/l at 0.2 h, 6.5-17.9 mumol/l at 0.5 h) increased in a biphasic manner at 0.2-0.5 h and 6-10 h postoperatively (all p < 0.05). Expired ethane, as an index of free radical activity, increased at 10 h postoperatively (36-119 pmol/kg per min preoperatively, 72-152 pmol/kg per min, p < 0.005). CONCLUSION: Granulocyte activation, and hypoxanthine and free radical production occur at least 10 h after cardiopulmonary bypass. In children undergoing open heart surgery, attempts to reduce free radical activity should be extended to the postoperative period.

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