Traditonal Medicine, Complementary and Alternative Medicine (TM/CAM)

  • A combination of the terms “Traditional Medicine” and “Complementary and Alternative Medicine” by WHO with the abbreviation “TM/CAM”. Each phrase is individually defined
  • “WHO defines “traditional medicine” as including diverse health practices, approaches, knowledge and beliefs incorporating plant, animal, and/or mineral based medicines, spiritual therapies, manual techniques and exercises applied singularly or in combination to maintain well-being, as well as to treat, diagnose or prevent illness.”
  • “The terms “complementary” and “alternative” are used to refer to a broad set of health care practices that are not part of a country’s own tradition, or not integrated into its dominant health care system.”[1]


  1. WHO. ( 2002). Traditional Medicine Strategy 2002-2005, World Health Organization (WHO).Geneva
in this scope
Country Scenario
T&CM Modalities
Malaysia T&CM Consumer Guideline