Articles

Yi Yi Ren

Semen Coicis, Coix seed

Dosage

The lethal dose of the seed oil was 5-10mg/g and 1-1.15g/kg respectively for mouse subcutaneous injection and rabbit intravenous injection.

Toxicity

LD (Yi Yi Ren oil): 5-10mg/g (mice/hypodermic injection); 1-1.15g/kg (rabbits/IV injection). (1)

Chemical Composition

Coixenolide; Starch; Proteins; Lipids; Monoglyceride; Diglyceride; Triglyceride; Fatty acid alkyl ester; Hexadecoic acid; Stearic acid; Feruloyl stigma sterol; Feruloyl campesterol; Dextran; Coixan A, B,C; Linoleic acid; Oleic acid; Palmitic acid; Linoleic acid; Vitamin B1; Leucine; Lysine; Arginine; Hexanal; Hexanoic acid; Nonanoic acid; Octanoic acid; g-nonalactone; Methyllinoleate; Ethylpalmitate; Vanillin; Ethyllinoleate; gly linoleic acid glyide; Octadecanoic olefinic acid; Octadecanoic diolefinic diacid; Acid polysaccharide CA-1, CA-2; 2-ethyl-3-hydroxyhexylbutrate. (2) , (3) , (4) , (5)

Precautions

Exercise caution when prescribing Yi Yi Rent to constipation patients, to patients suffering from spleen deficiency without dampness, and to pregnant women.

Pharmacology

Anti-tumor effects

Experiments show at 5.4g/kg, Yi Yi Ren oil can inhibit grafted S180 sarcoma in mice with an inhibition rate of above 30%. Similarly, at 1.8g/kg and 5.4g/kg, Yi Yi Ren oil can inhibit grafted HAC hepatocarcinoma in mice with an inhibition rate of above 30%. At 1.8g/kg, Yi Yi Ren oil can significantly increase the phagocytic rate of mice's abdominal macrophage against chicken red cells; at 5.4kg/kg, it can enhance the activity of mice's NK cells. (6) Combined with either cisplatin or mitomycin, Yi Yi Ren total extract can significantly increase the inhibition rate against grafted S180 and hepatocarcinoma H22 in mice. Such use can also enhance the activity of NK cells, and protect the subjects from chemical-induced atrophy of immune organshad, from decreases in the macrophage’s phagocytic function, and from decreases in white blood cell count. (7)

Immunization effects

Dextran 1-7, neutral polysaccharides derived from the herb dextran 1-7, and CA-1 and CA-2, acid polysaccharides derived from the herb, have anti-complementary activities. (8) Experiments show that coixenolide can significantly enhance immunologic function of red cells in mice with various tumors (e.g., S180, EAC, and L615). (9)

Effects on the digestive system

Abdominal administration of 75% alcohol-based extract of Yi Yi Ren can inhibit water immersion stress- and hydrochloric acid-induced ulcers in mice. The same treatment can also inhibit senna leaf-induced diarrhea in mice. However, it does not inhibit castor oil-induced diarrhea or gastrointestinal peristalsis in mice. In rats, the treatment mildly promotes bile secretion. (10)

Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-thrombotic effects

I.g. administration of 75% alcohol-based extract of Yi Yi Ren, at 5 or 10 g/kg, can antagonize dimethylbenzene-induced ear swelling and carrageenin-induced foot swelling in mice. The same treatment can slightly inhibit peritoneal capillary hyperpermeability in mice. Administered to rats at 3 or 10g/kg, it can prolong the thrombosis time and coagulation time caused by stimulating the carotid with electricity. (11) Moreover, one study treated 26 cases of severe functional dysmenorrhea with Yi Yi Ren, and reported that over 90% of the patients significantly improved, indicating that the herb has an analgesic effect. (12)

Other effects

Experiments show that feruloyl stigma sterol and eruloyl campesterol, two active components of Yi Yi Ren, can induce ovulation in golden hamsters. Administered to rabbits by subcutaneous injection, Yi Yi Ren oil and fatty acids with more than 12 carbon atoms can decrease the subjects’ blood sugar level. Similarly, administered to mice by peritoneal injection, coixan A, B, C can significantly lower the subjects’ blood sugar level within 7-24 hours. (13)

References

  1. Modern TCM Pharmacology. Tianjin: Science and Technology Press; 1997:544.
  2. The pharmacology and chemistry of Yi Yi Ren. Foreign Medicine Volume of TCM. 1989;11(3):19.
  3. Li Da Peng, et al. The chemical composition of Yi Yi Ren lipa. Journal of New Chinese Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology. 1999;10(2):99-101.
  4. Lei Zheng Jie, et al. The chemical composition of Yi Yi Ren fatty acids. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine Material. 1999;22(8):405.
  5. Editorial Committee of Chinese Materia Medica. State Drug Administration of China. Chinese Materia Medica. Shanghai: Science and Technology Press; 1998.
  6. Lu Yun, et al. Yi Yi Ren oil’s anti-tumor effects. Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Application of TCM. 1999;15(6):21-23.
  7. Li Feng Yun, et al. Yi Yi Ren’s synergistic effects with cisplatin and mitomycin. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Herbs. Apr2000;28(2):44-45.
  8. The pharmacology and chemistry of Yi Yi Ren. Foreign Medicine Volume of TCM. 1989;11(3):19.
  9. Yang Sheng, et al. Yi Yi Ren lipid’s effect on red blood cell’s immune function in mice with tumor. Heilongjiang Journal of Medicine. 1999;12(6):343-345.
  10. Zhang Ming Fa, et al. Yi Yi Ren’s pharmacological actions on the digestive system. Journal of Practical TCM. 1998;12(6):343-345.
  11. Zhang Ming Fa, et al. Yi Yi Ren’s anagesic, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic effects. Journal of Practical TCM. 1998;12(2):36-38.
  12. Zhang Yong Luo, et al. Sequential experiments on Yi Yi Ren’s analgesic effect in severe functional dysmenorrhea. Journal of TCM. 1998;39(10):599-600.
  13. The pharmacology and chemistry of Yi Yi Ren. Foreign Medicine Volume of TCM. 1989;11(3):19.