Effects of Different Operating Parameters on Piper betle L. Leaf Extraction

Author

PIN, K.Y. CHUAH, T.G. ABDULL RASHIH AHMAD, RASADAH MAT ALI, LAW, C.L. & CHOONG, T.S.Y.

Proceeding

The 21st Annual Seminar of the Malaysian Natural Product Society.(Herbal Medicine:Natural Products S ciety), Palm Garden, Putrajaya Malaysia.

Date

22/11/2005

Keyword

Cinnamomum iners, pharmacognostical evaluation, microscopical features, thin layer chromatography, moisture content, extractives

Abstract

A pharmacognostical evaluation was carried out on the stem bark and leaves of Cinnnamomum iners Blume for standardisation purposes based on the WHO methods. The powdered bark and leaves possessed bitter taste and slight odour. Microscopical examination showed the presence of lignified fibres, oil-containing cells and starch grains and twinned-prism calcium oxalate crystals in both samples. In addition, the stem bark had sclereids, lignified rectangular parenchymal cells and polyglonal epidermal cells while the leaves had wavy rectangular parenchymal cells, lignified polyglonal epidermal cells, vessels with scalariform and spiral thickening, unicellular trichomes, anomocytic stomata and prism-shaped crystals. Treatment of the samples with concentrated hydrochloric acid gave distinctly different colours, i.e. light brown and light green, for the stem bark and the leaves, respectively. Thin layer chromatographic profiles of the ethanolic (96%) extracts of C. iners were obtained using silica gel with hexane-ethyl acetate (5:4) and detection with various techniques. Determination of moisture content using loss on drying method, ethanol-soluble extractive, and water-soluble extractives using hot and cold methods were obtained for the stem bark as 4.60+0.08%, 12.00+0.04%, 3.71+0.12% and 2.68+0.03%, respectively, and that for the leaves as 1.86+0.08%, 6.89+0.40%, 4.34+0.04% and 3.27+0.01%, respectively. In conclusion, the stem bark and the leaves of C. iners had characteristically different pharmacognostic physico-chemical properties.