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Morinda citrifolia L.

Morinda citrifolia L.




Morinda bracteata Roxb.

Vernacular Names

Malaysia Mengkudu besar, mengkudu jantan.
English Indian mulberry
Indonesia Pace (Javanese), cangkudu (Sundanese), mengkudu (Malay).
Philippines Bankoro, tumbong-aso (Tagalog), apatot (Ilokano).
Burma (Myanmar) Al.
Cambodia Nhoër srôk, nhoër thôm'.
Laos Nhoo baanz.
Thailand Yo baan (central), mataa-suea (northern), yae-yai (Karen, Mae HongSon).
Vietnam Nh[af]u l[os] chanh, ngao, nh[af]u n[us]i.
French Morinde

Geographical Distributions

M. citrifolia is possibly indigenous in tropical Asia and tropical Australia. Man and sea currents may have distributed it. It is naturalised in many tropical regions, and is now in fact almost pantropical.


This is a shrub or small tree, which can grow up to 8(-12) m tall.

The leaves are elliptical to elliptical-lance-shaped or ovate with a size of (10-)15-30(-50) cm x 4-17 cm.

The inflorescence is solitary in axils of stipules and peduncled. The white petal tube is slightly longer than its lobes.

Fruit is compound and egg-shaped, up to 10 cm x 6 cm and whitish-yellow or whitish-green.

Ecology / Cultivation

M. citrifolia occurs in various habitats, along seashores and in secondary vegetation near the coast, usually introduced and naturalised, but also up to 1500 m altitude.

Line Drawing / Photograph


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1) Cultivation

2) Medicinal Herbs




  1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No.12(3): Medicinal and poisonous plants 3. 2003.

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