image
Conservation

Compilation of herbal plants (description, geographical distribution, taxonomy, line drawings), biodiversity and herbarium.

Read More
image
Research & Publication

Description of herbal and T&CM research, searchable publication and process from medicinal plant discovery to clinical trial in producing a high-quality registered herbal drug.

Read More
 
Traditional & Complementary Medicine (T&CM)

 

Definition and description of therapies, policy, training and education, research in the practise of (T&CM) and integrated medicine system.           

Read More

 

News Update

Announcement & Advertisement

Forthcoming Events

14th International Conference on Biopharma and Biotherapeutics

From Fri, 25. October 2019 Until Sat, 26. October 2019

World Conference on Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Clinical Research

From Wed, 27. November 2019 Until Thu, 28. November 2019

15th Annual Congress on Pharmacology and Toxicology

From Mon, 2. December 2019 Until Tue, 3. December 2019

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine

From Mon, 24. February 2020 Until Tue, 25. February 2020

21st Interntaional Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems

From Wed, 11. March 2020 Until Thu, 12. March 2020

Linkage of the dopamine D4 receptor gene and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Author

Sunohara GA, Roberts W, Malone M, Schachar RJ, Tannock R, et al

Date

12/2000

Journal

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: There is considerable evidence supporting a genetic component in the etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Because stimulant medications act primarily on the dopaminergic system, dopamine system genes are prime candidates for genetic susceptibility factors for ADHD. Previous studies by several groups have observed a significant association of ADHD and an allele with 7 copies of the 48 base pair repeat in the third exon of the dopamine D4 receptor. METHOD: The authors sought to replicate these previous findings by collecting an independent sample of families from Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and confirming this finding in an expanded sample of ADHD families collected from Irvine, California. Using the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT), the authors tested for biased transmission of the 7-repeat allele at the exon III polymorphism of the dopamine D4 receptor locus in these samples of ADHD subjects. RESULTS: Biased transmission of the 7-repeat allele from parents to ADHD probands and their affected siblings was observed in the 2 new samples of families collected in Toronto and Irvine (TDT chi2 = 2.711, 1 df, one-sided p value = .050) and for these samples combined with the 52 families previously reported from Irvine (TDT chi2 = 6.426, 1 df, one-sided p value = .006). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study further support the possibility of a role of the dopamine D4 receptor locus in ADHD.

Explore Further

Consumer Data

Consumer data including medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs and interactions and depletions.                                    

Read More
Professional Data

Professional data organized into medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs, T&CM herbs, formulas, health conditions, interactions and depletions.

Read More
International Data

We offer International linkages to provide extensive content pertaining to many facets of T&CM as well as Integrated Medicine. Please register for access.    

Read More