She Dan Zhi

Fel Serpentis, She Dan

Dosage

Decoction: 10-15g. 5:1 concentrated extracts: 2-3g. (1)

Toxicity

Half lethal dose has not been determined in intravenous injection and gastric perfusion of water solution of blue ringed sea snake bile to mice. No abnormal phenomenon has been observed in 7 days of observation after gastric perfusion of the bile of three snakes 12g/kg to animals. (2) , (3)

Chemical Composition

Chenodeoxycholic acid; Cholic acid; Conjugated bile acid; Deoxycholic acid; Free bile acid; Glycocholic acid; Glycodeoxycholic acid; Glycohyodeoxycholic acid; Glycolithocholic acid; Glycoursodeoxycholic acid; Lithocholic acid; Lycine; Taurine; Taurochenodeoxycholic acid; Taurocholic acid; Taurodeoxycholic acid; Taurodeoxysodium cholate; Taurolithocholic acid; Tauropythonsodium cholate; Tauroursochenodeoxycholic acid; Ursodeoxycholic acid. (4) , (5) , (6) , (7) , (8) , (9) , (10) , (11)

Inorganic Chemicals

It contains trace elements Zn, Cu and Fe and macro-elements Ca and Mg.

Precautions

One case of arrhythmia caused by swallowing raw snake gallbladder and one case of allergic purpura and nephritis reported ,caused by swallowing fresh snake gallbladder have been reported. (12) , (13)

Pharmacology

Regulating immune function and promoting metabolism

The trace elements Zn, Cu, and Fe in snake bile have an active effect on many enzymes in the body, and a direct or indirect effect on the synthesis of nucleic acid and protein, the immune process, and cell reproduction. They can promote epithelial cell recovery, increase cell division, and strengthen T-cell activity, thereby regulating the immune function and controlling metabolism through the enzyme system. (14)

Effects on relieving cough, removing phlegm and relieving asthma

Qing Huan Hai She Dan (bile from blue ringed sea snake) and San She Dan (bile from cobra, banded krait, and squirrel snake) have a significant effect in relieving cough. In mice, gastric perfusion of Qing Huan Hai She Dan (20mg/kg) can significantly relieve cough that is induced by ammonia water. Gastric perfusion at 45.6mg/kg or 159.2mg/kg can significantly remove phlegm. The effect increases with dosage. San She Dan can promote secretion in mice respiratory tract, significantly increase ciliary motion in the trachea of pigeon, and significantly relieve asthma caused by spraying histamine phosphate in guinea pigs. Qing Huan Hai She Dan has a significant effect in relieving acetylcholine induced trachea spasm. Normal or abnormal bile (of cobra, Wangjin snake, and Heimeijin snake) 0.25ml/ml has a significant expanding effect on spasm of an isolated trachea from guinea pigs caused by acetylcholine. (15) , (16) , (17)

Other effects

Ursodeoxycholic acid, a main ingredient in snake bile, can dissolve gallstones, remove toxin, resist inflammation, promote digestion and absorption, and antagonize allergy. Cholic acids have analgesia and sedation effects. (18) , (19)

References

  1. Huang Shao Lie, et al. One report of Q-T period lengthening syndrome induced by orally administered She Dan. Journal of Integrated Medicine. 1989;9(7):434.
  2. Xiang Yi, et al. Thin-layer chromatography analysis of cholic acid in artificial She Dan Zhi. Journal of Guangdong College Pharmacy. 1999;27(9):674-678.
  3. Xu Shi Bo, et al. Pharmacology of Qing Huan Hai She Dan. China Journal of Ocean Medicinal Products. 1989;8(3):4.
  4. Fan Lu Xin, et al. Separation and structural determination on cholic acid in She Dan. Journal of Tongji Medical University. 1993;22(4):285-287.
  5. Lu Jia Yuan, et al. Comparative research in chemical composition of Huo She Dan Zhi and She Dan Zhi. Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 1993;24(7):348-350.
  6. Zhang De Tong, et al. Comparative research on chicken bile and snake biles components. China Journal of Biochemical Medicinal Material. 1994;15(1):4-6.
  7. Zhang Zhen. Thin-layer analysis of cholic acids from then different kinds of She Dan Zhi. Journal of Chinese Patented Medicine. 1989;11(3):35-36.
  8. Zhen Jie Ying, et al. Composition research on herbs that use three kinds of cholic acid. Journal of Guangzhou College of TCM. 1988;(2):107-110.
  9. Chen Ying Yang, et al. She Dan trace elements’ quantity determination and clinical significance. Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 1987;18(1):12.
  10. YouYong Ji, et al. Chemical composition of She Dan. Journal of Pharmacy. 1992;27(9):674-678.
  11. Xiang Yi, et al. Thin-layer chromatography analysis of cholic acid in artificial She Dan Zhi. Journal of Guangdong College Pharmacy. 1999;27(9):674-678.
  12. Huang Shao Lie, et al. One report of Q-T period lengthening syndrome induced by orally administered She Dan. Journal of Integrated Medicine. 1989;9(7):434.
  13. Tang Ya Juan, et al. One report of allergic purpura and nephritis. Journal of Clinical Application in Dermatology. 1992;21(6):295.
  14. Xiang Yi, et al. Thin-layer chromatography analysis of cholic acid in artificial She Dan Zhi. Journal of Guangdong College Pharmacy. 1999;27(9):674-678.
  15. Xu Shi Bo, et al. Pharmacology of Qing Huan Hai She Dan. China Journal of Ocean Medicinal Products. 1989;8(3):4.
  16. Xu Lian Hao, et al. Experimental research on Qing Huan Hai She Dan and San She Dan’s effects in relieving cough, removing phlegm, and relieving asthma. China Journal of Ocean Medicinal Products. 1995;14(1):19.
  17. Li Ze Hao, et al. Pharmaceutical effects in different kinds of Da She Dan. Journal of Modern Applied Medicine. 1987;(1):10-12.
  18. Xiang Yi, et al. Thin-layer chromatography analysis of cholic acid in artificial She Dan Zhi. Journal of Guangdong College Pharmacy. 1999;27(9):674-678.
  19. Lin Zhao Ping, et al. She Dan’s chemistry, pharmacology and clinical research conditions. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine Material. 1994;17(4):46-48.