Shan Zhu Yu

Corni Fructus, Cornus

Dosage

Decoction 5~10g, or pill, or powder.

Toxicity

LD50 (mice/intraperitoneal injection): 59.84g/kg (kern of Shan Zhu Yu), and 86.24g/kg (sarcocarp of Shan Zhu Yu). (1)

Chemical Composition

Cornuside; Morroniside; Loganin; Sweroside; Glucose; Fructose; Sucrose; Ursolic acid; Gallic acid; Malic acid; Tartaric acid; Vitamin A; Vitamin B1; Vitamin C; Cornus-tannin 1, 2, 3; Isoterchebin; Tellimagradin II; Tellimagradin I; Cornusiin A,B,C,G; Eugeniin; Gemin; Flavone; Anthraquinone; Sterol; Lactone; Coumarin; Isobutylalcohol; Butanol; Isoamyl alcohol; Linalool oxide; Furfural; b-phenyl ethylalcohol Lemicin; Methyl eugenol; Isoasarone; Ethyl palmitate; Ethyl oleate; Ethyl linoleate; Benzylcinnamate; Palmitic acid; Stearic acid; Copaene; a-terpineol; a-curcumene; Anethole; Asaricin; Aristolone; Ethyl vanillin; Ethyl linolenate; Pulegone; Safrole; Threonine; Valine; Leucine; Isoleucine; Phenylalanine; Histidine; Lysine; Serine; Glutamic acid; Glycine; Alanine; Tyrosine; Arginine; Aspartic acid; Methionine; Proline; Cystine; Linoleic acid; Oleic acid; Palmitic acid; Stearic acid; Linolenic acid; Lauric acid; G,2,3-di-O-galloyl-a-D-glucose; 7-O-methyl morroniside; 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-a-glucose; 1,2,6-tri-0-galloyl-a-D-glucose; 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-gal1oyl-a-D-glucose; 4-methoxy-1, 2-benzodioxole. (2)

Inorganic Chemicals

Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, B, P.

Precautions

Patients suffering hyperactive kidney-yang, chronic dampness, and stranguria should avoid using the herb.

Pharmacology

Effects on the immune system

Shan Zhu Yu can significantly inhibit the functions of the mononuclear phagocyte system in mice. (3) It can suppress in-vitro lymphocyte mitosis reaction and mixed lymphocyte reaction. At the dosage 3mg/ml, it can suppress over 80% of the reactions. Oral administration of Shan Zhu Yu decoction decreases lymphocytes production of IL-2in mice. (4)

Anti-aging effect

Use of Shan Zhu Yu for extended periods of time can increase hemoglobin concentration, increase body strength in mice, counteract fatigue, improve tolerance of oxygen deprivation, and enhance memory. (5) Shan Zhu Yu has relatively strong anti-oxidation effects. In one experiment, Zhang used D-galactose to induce senescence in rats, and fed the subjects with Shan Zhu Yu decoction. Six weeks later, it was observed that the SOD activity in the mice’s myocardium was increased. (6)

Anti-inflammatory effect

Administered at the dosages of 1.00, 0.5, 0.25g/kg and 4.0, 2.0g/kg, cornin can inhibit carrageenin-induced toe swelling in rats and mice (P

Effects on hemorrhagic shock

Administered at the dosage of 1.0mg/kg to rabbits of modeled severe hemorrhagic shock by intravenous injection, loganin, an active ingredient of Shan Zhu Yu, can raise the blood pressure. (7)

Inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation

Administered by IV injection to healthy rabbits at the dosages of 1.0 or 0.5g/kg, alcohol-based extract of Shan Zhu Yu can suppress platelet aggregation and decrease blood viscosity. (8)

Effects on blood sugar

Although Shan Zhu Yu’s alcohol-based extract does not seem to affect the blood sugar level in healthy rats, it tends to lower the blood sugar level in healthy mice. Administered at 7g/kg to rats of diabetes induced by tetraoxypyrimidine and adrenaline for 7 days, it can significantly lower the subjects’ blood sugar level. (9)

Effects on cardiac functions and hemodynamics

Administered to cats at 2-8g/kg by IV injection, Shan Zhu Yu can: 1) strengthen the myocardium contraction, 2) raise the cardiac efficiency, 3) dilate peripheral blood vessels, 4) strengthen the heart’s blood-pumping function, and 5) raise the blood pressure. (10)

Antibacterial effects

Experiments show that Shan Zhu Yu can inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus dysenteriae. (11)

References

  1. Yi Sheng Fu. Journal of Chinese Patented Medicine. 1991;13(3):45.
  2. Editorial Committee of Chinese Materia Medica. State Drug Administration of China. Chinese Materia Medica. Shanghai: Science and Techonology Press; 1998.
  3. Gong Hai Yang, et al. Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Application of TCM. 1995;11(2):30-33.
  4. Li Jie, et al. Journal of Sino-Japanese Friendship Hospital. 1996;10(1):43-45.
  5. Zang Lian Bi, et al. Journal of Zhejiang College of TCM. 1993;17(5):34.
  6. Zhang Peng Xia, et al. Heilongjian Journal of Medicine and Pharmacology. 1999;22(4):5.
  7. Wang Tian Shan, et al. Journal of Nanjin University of TCM. 1999;15(6):345-346.
  8. Liu Bao Lin, et al. Journal of University of Pharmacology of China. 1992;23(1):19-21.
  9. Jiang Yu, et al. Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Application of TCM. 1989;5(1):36-38.
  10. Hu Xiao Ying, et al. Journal of Nanjing College of TCM. 1988;(3):28-29.
  11. Shang Sui Cun, et al. Henan Journal of TCM Pharmacy. 1994;(6):21-22.