Bai Qian

Rhizoma et Radix Cynanchi, Cynanchum

Dosage

(3~10g) is decocted in water or processed into pills or powder.

Toxicity

LD50 (mice): 19.56g/kg (intragastric administration/alcohol-based extract); 7.9g/kg (peritoneal injection/water-based extract). (1)

Chemical Composition

b-sitosterol and hancockinol; Cynatratoside-B II; Cynaforroside-A I; Glaucogenin C3-O-a-L-cymaropyranosyl-(1→4)-b-L-cymaropyranosyl-(1→4)- b-D-oleandropyranoside; Hancockinol Ia; Hancolupenol IId; Hancolupenone IIc; Hancolupenol octacosanate IId; Glaucogenin C I; Cnatratoside A II; Glaucogenin A III; Anhydrohirundigenin IV; Hancogenin B, V; Hancoside A, VI; Antofine (I); 5 O Demethylantofine (II); Isoantofinemethine; Dehydroantofine; Glaucoside A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K; Glaucogenin A and B; Glaucogenin C-mono-D-thevetoside; Neoglaucoside A and B; Glaucobiose. (2) , (3) , (4) , (5) , (6) , (7)

Precautions

Bai Qian should be taken with caution by patients with asthma and cough due to deficiency of the lung. Overdose may irritate the stomach.

Pharmacology

Relieving cough and asthma, and eliminating phlegm

Intragastric administration of water, alcohol, or ether-based extract of Bai Qian can relieve ammonia-induced cough in mice. Water and alcohol-based extracts have an expectorant effect. Abdominal injection of water-based extract can effectively relieve asthma in guinea pigs that is induced by the mixture of acetylcholine and histamine. (8)

Anti-inflammation

Administered to mice by intraperitoneal injection, water-based extract of Bai Qian is shown to have a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on croton oil-induced acute exudative auricular inflammation. (9)

Effect on the digestive system

Administered to mice by intragastric infusion, 75% alcohol-based extract of Bai Qian has an inhibitory effect on the formation of ulcers induced by immersion stress, hydrochloric acid, and indoleacetic acid-alcohol, and can reduce the incidence rate and frequency of croton oil and senna leaf-induced diarrhea. Administered to rats, it can temporarily increase the secretion of bile. (10)

Anti-tumor effect

In vitro experiments show that at 32mg/ml, cynatratoside A can inhibit erythroleukemia (K562) with a 42% inhibition rate, and human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 with a 87% inhibition rate. Hancoside A can counteract the side effects of tumor necrotic factor (TNF). (11) Phenanthroindolizidine alkaloid can kill or damage various human cancer cell strains. (12)

References

  1. Liang Ai Hua, et al. Bai Qian’s effects in relieving cough, eliminating phlegm and counteracting inflammation. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1996;21(3):173-175.
  2. Qiu Sheng Xiang. The chemical composition of Liuye Bai Qian. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1994;19(8):488-489.
  3. Chen Ji Jun, et al. The chemical composition of Dali Bai Qian. Yunnan Journal of Botany Research. 1989;11(4):471-475.
  4. Lou Hong Xiang, et al. New components of Huabei Bai Qian. Journal of Pharmacy. 1991;26(8):584-592.
  5. Lou Hong Xiang, et al. C21 steroids of Huabei Bai Qian. Journal of Pharmacy. 1992;27(8):595-602.
  6. Lou Hong Xiang, et al. The isolation of Huabei Bai Qian biological alkaloids and the preparation of their derivatives. Journal of Shandong Medical University. 1995; 33(2):158-162.
  7. Editorial Committee of Chinese Materia Medica. State Drug Administration of China. Chinese Materia Medica. Shanghai: Science and Technology Press; 1998.
  8. Liang Ai Hua, et al. Bai Qian’s effects in relieving cough, eliminating phlegm and relieving asthma. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1995;20(3):176-178.
  9. Liang Ai Hua, et al. Bai Qian’s effects in relieving cough, eliminating phlegm and relieving asthma. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1995;20(3):176-178.
  10. Shen Ya Qin, et al. Bai Qian’s effect on the digestive system. Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Application of TCM. 1995;20(3):176-178.
  11. Lou Hong Xiang, et al. C21 steroids of Huabei Bai Qian. Journal of Pharmacy. 1992;27(8):595-602.
  12. Editorial Committee of Chinese Materia Medica. State Drug Administration of China. Chinese Materia Medica. Shanghai: Science and Technology Press; 1998.