Qiang Huo

Rhizoma seu Radix Notopterygii, Notopterygium Root

Dosage

Internal administration 3-10g by water boiling or in pills or powder.

Toxicity

LD50 (mice/volatile oil/endogastric infusion): 6.64 ± 0.8726ml/kg, (1) or 2.83g/kg. (2)

Chemical Composition

Isoimperatorin; Bergapten; Cnidilin; p-hydroxyphenethyl anisate; Notopterol; Notoptol; Falcarindiol; Pregnenolone; Trans-ferulaic acid; Nodakenin; Bergaptol; 6'-O-(trans-fe-ruloyl)-nodakenin; Bergaptol-O-bate-D-glucopyranoside; Decuroside V; Taba-sitosterol glucoside; a-pinene; b-pinene; Limonene; Terpinen-4-ol; Bornyl acetate; a-thujene; b-ocimene; g-terpinene; a-copaene; Trans-b-farnesene; Apiol; Guaiol; Benzyl benzoate; Columbianin; Daucosterol; Bergapten; Isoimperatonin; Demethylfuropinnarin; Notopterol; Notoptol; Anhydronotoptol; Xanthotoxol; Bergamottin; Phenyl ferulate; P-hydroxy-m-methoxy-benzoic acid; Feruliac acid; Pregnenolone; b-sitosterol; Oleic acid; Linoleic acid; Ethylnotopterol; Notoptolide; Anhydronotoptoloxide; Karatavicin; Rhamnose; Fructose; Glucose; Sucrose; Tetradecanoic acid; Methyl ester; Tetradecanoic acid; 12-methyl-methyester; Aspartic acid; Glutamic acid; Bergaptin; Isoimperatin; 4-hydroxy-3, 5 dimethoxystilbene; Notopterol; Farcarineiol; Nodekester; Nodekenin; Bergaptol; 6-oxy-transferulene-nodekemin; Bergatol-b-D-pyraglucoside; b-sitosterol; b-D-pyraglucoside; Phellopterin; Hexanal; Heptanal. (3) , (4) , (5) , (6) , (7) , (8) , (9) , (10) , (11) , (12) , (13) , (14)

Precautions

Patients with deficiency in qi and blood should use Qiang Huo with caution.

Pharmacology

Effects on cerebral blood circulation

Administered to anesthetized cats and dogs by intravenous injection at 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 g/kg, Qiang Huo can increase the subjects’ carotid arterial blood flow. The subjects’ peripheral blood flow, heart rate, and blood pressure are not affected by the treatment. (15)

Counteracting arrhythmia

Qiang Huo can antagonize aconitine-induced rat arrhythmia. The dose-effect curve is U-shaped. The optimal effect is obtained at the concentration of 12g/kg (large molecular portion) and 22g/kg (small molecular portion). The heart rate returns to normal at the 25- and 35-minute marks after treatment. The dose-effect curve of the natural juice of the raw herb is horizontal, and the heart rate returns to normal at the 35-minute mark after treatment. (16) Qiang Huo’s water-soluble components are effective in antagonizing aconitine-induced arrythmia in rabbits. (17) It shortens the duration of arrhythmia and lengthens the latency. (18)

Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects

Intra-peritoneal injection or endogastric administration of Qian Huo volatile oil can suppress xylol-induced ear lobe swelling, and carragenin and dextravan-induced foot pad edema in mice. The same treatment can antagonize the delayed anaphylexis that is induced by 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene, suppress acetic acid-induced body twisting reaction, and prolong thermal pain threshold. (19) Administered to mice by endogastric infusion at 5 and 15g/kg, Qiang Huo volatile oil can prolong the latency of thermal stimulation reaction, but it has only a mild inhibitory effect on acetic acid-induced body twisting reaction. Its inhibitory effect on carrageenin-induced foot pad edema lasts for 5 hours, and it shows a tendency to inhibit xylol-induced increase in peritoneal capillary permeability. (20) Administered to mice by endogastric infusion at 1.5g/kg and 6g/kg, water-based extract of Qiang Huo has pronounced analgesic and antiflammatory effects. (21)

Antipyretic effect

Qiang Huo volatile oil can lower body temperature in rats with induced hyperthermia. (22) Administered to rabbits by intra-peritoneal injection at 2ml/kg, Qiang Huo can decrease zymogen-induced hyperthermia. (23)

Bacteriostatic effect

Experiments show that Qiang Huo has a bacteriostatic effect on Flexner"s bacilli, E. coli 126, E. typhosa, and B. pyrogenus. (24)

Anti-myocardial ischemia

Administered to rats by endogastric infusion at 0.3-0.6g/kg, Qiang Huo volatile oil can antagonize changes in EKG readings in rats of pituitrin-induced ischemia. (25)

Anti-oxidation effect

Methanol-based extract of Qiang Huo can suppress the generation of malonaldehyde, reagents of thiobarbituric acid, conjugation bond, and fluorescence substance in mice of carbon tetrachloride-induced hyperactive liver. (26)

References

  1. Xu Hui Bo, et al. Pharmacology of Qiang Huo volatile oil. Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 1991;22(1):28-30.
  2. Qin Cai Ling, et al. Pharmacology of Chinese herb Qiang Huo (I). Traditional Chinese Medicine Bulletin. 1982;(1):31-32.
  3. Yang Xiu Wei, et al. Qiang Huo chemical composition. Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 1993;24(10):507-511.
  4. Ji Li, et al. Qiang Huo volatile oil’s composition. Journal of Research and Development of Natural Resources. 1997;9(1):4-8.
  5. Fan Ju Fen, et al. Qiang Huo’s chemical composition (I): Qiang Huo volatile oil’s separation and determination. Traditional Chinese Medicine Bulletin. 1981;6(1):29-32.
  6. Sun You Fu, et al. Qiang Huo’s chemical composition. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1994;19(6):357-358.
  7. Xiao Yong Qing, et al. Qiang Huo’s chemical composition. China Journal of Chinese Medicine 1994;19(7):421-422.
  8. Sun You Fu, et al. Qiang Huo’s chemical composition (III): Separation and determination of chemical components of Qiang Huo’s petroleum ether extracts. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1994;19(2):99-100.
  9. Xiao Yong Qing, et al. Coumarins of Chinese herb Qiang Huo. Journal of Pharmacy. 1995;30(4):274-279.
  10. Zhou Ai Ling, et al. Chemical components of Qiang Guo roots. Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 1989;20(3):142-143.
  11. Fan Ju Fen, et al. Qiang Huo’s chemical composition (III): An analaysis of sugars, amino acids, and organic acids. Traditional Chinese Medicine Bulletin. 1986;11(9):44-46.
  12. Yang Xiu Wei, et al. Wide-leaved Qiang Huo’s chemical composition. China Journal of Pharmacy. 1994;29(3):141-143.
  13. Wang Shu, et al. Wide-leaved Qiang Huo’s chemical composition. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1996;21(5):295-296.
  14. Zhao Zhi Yang, et al. Chemical composition of wide-leaved Qiang Huo volatile oil. Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 1985;(8):16.
  15. Feng Ying Ju, et al. Qiang Huo’s effect on cerebral blood circulation in anesthetized animals. Shaanxi Journal of TCM. 1998;19(1):37-38.
  16. Cheng Yi Zhu, et al. A comparison of the anti-arrhythmic effects of various Qiang Huo water-soluble components. China Journal of TCM Theories. 1998;4(2):43.
  17. Qin Cai Ling, et al. The anti-arrhythmic effects of Qiang Huo water-soluable components. Traditional Chinese Medicine Bulletin. 1987;(12):45-47.
  18. Zhu Xiao Ou, et al. A comparision of the anti-arrhythmic effect of four varieties of Qiang Huo. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1990;15(6):366-368.
  19. Xu Hui Bo, et al. Pharmacology of Qiang Huo volatile oil. Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 1991;22(1):28-30.
  20. Zhang Ming Fa, et al. Qiang Huo’s analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-thrombotic effects. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine Research. 1996;(6):51-53.
  21. Wang Yi Tao, et al. Pharmacology of Qiang Huo. Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Application of TCM. 1996;12(4):12-15.
  22. Xu Hui Bo, et al. Pharmacology of Qiang Huo volatile oil. Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 1991;22(1):28-30.
  23. Jin Shu Fen, et al. Pharmacology of Qiang Huo injection. Journal of Chinese Patented Medicine Research. 1981;(12):41.
  24. Jin Shu Fen, et al. Pharmacology of Qiang Huo injection. Journal of Chinese Patented Medicine Research. 1981;(12):41.
  25. Qin Cai Ling, et al. Pharmacology of Chinese herb Qiang Huo (I). Traditional Chinese Medicine Bulletin. 1982;(1):31-32.
  26. Yang Xiu Wei. Qiang Huo’s inhibitory effect on lipid peroxides. Foreign Medicine (TCM vol). 1993;15(1):37.