Hou Pu

Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Magnolia Bark

Dosage

3~10g is decocted in water or processed into pills or powder for oral administration. 5:1 concentrated extract: 0.6-2 grams/day.

Toxicity

LD50 (mice/intraperitoneal injection): 61.2 ± 0.038g/kg (decoction), 45.55mg/kg (magnocurarine); MLD cats/ intravenous injection/decoction): 4.25±1.25g/kg. (1)

Chemical Composition

Magnolol- Honokiol; Obovatol; 6’-O-methylhonokiol; Magnaldehyde B and C; Sinapicaldehyde; Syringaresinol; Magno lignan A, B, C, D, E; Randainal; Piperitylmagnolol; Dipiperitylmagnolol; Piperitylhonokiol; Bornylmagnolol; Randiol; Magnatriol B; Magnaldehyde D and E; Magnolignan F, G, H and I; 4-allyl-2-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)-phenol; 2-O-methyl honokiol; 4’-O-methylhonokiol; Eudeshonokiol B; Syrinhonokiol; Magnolianin; Eudesobovatols A and B; Magnocurarine; Liriodenine; Salici foline; a-eudesmol; b- eudesmol; g- eudesmol; Cymene; Camphene; Caryophyllene; Anti-caryophyllene; b-selinene; d- selinene; a-cadinene; Aromadendrene; Isoaromadendrene; Cedrol; P-cymene; 1, 4-cineol; 2X listed; Linalool; a-terpineol; a-humulene; 4-terpinenol; Globulol; a-limonene; Hexadecoic acid; 9, 8-linoleic acid; a-pinene; b-pinene. (2) , (3) , (4) , (5) , (6) , (7) , (8) , (9) , (10) , (11) , (12)

Inorganic Chemicals

It also contains trace elements, including B, Mn, Fe, Mg, Mo, Cu, Zn, and Se.

Precautions

Contraindications: qi deficiency, severe consumption of body fluids and blood. Pregnant women should take Hou Pu with caution. Hou Pu may damage the kidney, (13) and overdose may cause death due to respiratory inhibition. (14)

Pharmacology

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects

When administered to mice in either a 5g/kg or 15g/kg alcohol-based extract, Hou Pu has an analgesic effect. Using this same treatment can also counteract the acetic acid-induced capillary permeability increase in mice, as well as xylene-induced swelling of the mice’s ears, and carrageenin-induced swelling in the rats’ metatarsi. (15)

Effects on the digestive system

Both raw and ginger-processed Hou Pu can relieve acute experimental gastric ulcer due to pyloric ligation or stress. (16) At 5g/kg and 15g/kg, an alcohol-based extract of Hou Pu can suppress hydrochloric acid-induced gastric ulcer and antagonize senna-induced diarrhea in mice. And at 3g/kg and 10g/kg, it promotes bile secretion. (17) Furthermore, Hou Pu excites the gastrointestinal movement in rats, and ameliorates the inhibition on gastrointestinal movement in shocked rats. (18)

Effect on liver flukes

In-vitro experiments show that Hou Pu could reduce or suppress the movement of liver flukes. (19)

Effect on the secretion of catecholamine by the adrenal medulla

Hou Pu extracts (200~900 ug/ml) have dosage-dependant inhibitory effects on ACh stimulation-induced secretion of catecholamine (CA) by the adrenal medulla. Magnolol, honokiol, beta-eudesmol, and vinyl borneol can also inhibit Ach-induced secretion of CA. Beta-eudesmol is able to suppress Ach-induced inward flow of Na+ and Ca2+, and has a dosage-dependent inhibitory effect on CA secretion induced by high concentration of Ca. (20)

Spasm-relieving effect

In isolated ileum samples, Magnus’ experiment shows that methyl alcohol-based extract of Hou Pu had an inhibitory effect on muscular contraction induced by carbarcholine (CCh), 5-HT, and electrical stimulation. (21)

Other effects

Magnolol can lower serum GDT and blood ammonia and nitrogen levels in animals of experimental liver injuries. It can prevent liver fibrosis and cirrhosis formation in rats. It can also enhance the cellular immune function, heighten the activity of plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lower the lipid peroxide level in rats of immune liver fibrosis. (22)

References

  1. Pharmacology Department, Shanghai First Medical College. Summery of Hou Pu’s pharmacology. Journal of Modern Medicine and Pharmacy. 1973;(4):31-32.
  2. Editorial Committee of Chinese Materia Medica, State Drug Administration of China. Chinese Materia Medica. Shanghai Science and Technology Press. 1998.
  3. Luo Ci Xin Sheng. Nerve synapse-stretching substance in Hou Pu. Foreign Medicine (TCM vol.). 1992;14(5):10-11.
  4. Song Tian Jiu Si. Pharmacology of Chinese raw herbs (1): Hou Pu’s anti-convulsion effects. Foreign Medicine (TCM vol.). 1999;21(2):52.
  5. Zhang Guan De. A survey of phytochemical studies of herbs of the Magnoliae genus. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1989;14(9):565-568.
  6. Cui Jian Fang, et al. Quaternary ammonium alkaloids of herbs of the Magnoliae genus. Journal of Pharmacy. 1988;23(50):383.
  7. Chen Jian Nan, et al. An analysis of carbon dioxide extracts of Hou Pu. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine Material. 1998;21(9):460.
  8. Li Zong, et al. Chemical composition of Hou Pu volatile oil. Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 1999;30(7):493.
  9. Zhang Qiang, et al. A GC-MS analysis of Hou Pu volatile oil. Journal of Huaxi Medical University. 1997;28(3):338-340.
  10. Gao Qiao Zheng Shi, et al. Effects of Hou Pu and its component globulol on the secretion of catecholamine by adrenal glands’ medulla cells. Foreign Medicine (TCM vol.). 2000;22(3):162.
  11. Zhang Qi Lan, et al. Determination of trace element Se in selected anti-cancer Chinese herbs. Journal of Modern Applied Pharmacy. 1995;12(1):21-23.
  12. Yu Su Qing, et al. Determination of trace elements in 10 Chinese herbs. Pharmacy Bulletin. 1988;23(6):358-360.
  13. Hu Wei Xin, et al. Hepatic pathological changes that may be caused by Chinese herbs. Journal of Kidney Diseases and Dialysis of Kidney Graft. 1995;4(6):551-553.
  14. Pharmacology Department, Shanghai First Medical College. Summery of Hou Pu’s pharmacology. Journal of Modern Medicine and Pharmacy. 1973;(4):31-32.
  15. Zhu Zi Ping, et al. Hou Pu’s analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 1997;28(10):613-615.
  16. Hu Li Ping, et al. Effects of Hou Pu and its prepared products on acute experimental gastric ulcer in rats. Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 1991;22(11):509-510.
  17. Zhu Zi Ping, et al. Hou Pu’s effect on the digestive system. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1997;22(11):686-688.
  18. Ci Xiu Li, et al. Hou Pu’s effect on gastrointestine electric activity in normal and endotoxin-shocked rats. China Journal of TCM Science and Technology. 1999;6(3):154-156.
  19. Zha Chuan Long, et al. The effect of Bing Lang and Hou Pu on liver flukes. Journal of Nanjing College of TCM. 1990;6(4):34-37.
  20. Gao Qiao Zheng Shi, et al. Effects of Hou Pu and its component globulol on the secretion of catecholamine by adrenal glands’ medulla cells. Foreign Medicine (TCM vol.). 2000;22(3):162.
  21. Song Tian Jiu Si. Pharmacology of Chinese raw herbs (1): Hou Pu’s anti-convulsion effects. Foreign Medicine (TCM vol.). 1999;21(2):52.
  22. Xu Huan Shu, et al. Magnolol’s pharmacodynamics. Beijing Journal of TCM. 1993;(3):51-52.