Zhi Qiao

Fructus Aurantii, Aurantium Fruit

Dosage

Internal administration: 3 to 9g of the herb are decocted into water for oral administration; it also can be used to make pills and powder. 5:1 concentrated extract: 0.6 to 1.8 grams/day.

Chemical Composition

Hesperidin; Neohesperidin; Naringin; Synephrine; N-methyltyramine; Coumarin; Umbeliferone; Auraptene; D-limonene; Limonene; Cis-linaloloxide; Synephrine; Citromalic acid; Vitamin C; Vitamin P; Pectin; Pigment; Inorganic salt. (1) , (2) , (3) , (4)

Precautions

Exercise caution when prescribing this herb to pregnant women.

Pharmacology

Effects on the uterus

Experiments on mice have shown that Zhi Qiao decoctions have excitatory effects on both in-vivo and in-vitro gestational and non-gestational uteruses, resulting in an increase in contractility and tension, and even tetanus. Zhi Qiao’s excitatory effect on the uterus of mice even extends to uteri fistulas. (5)

Effects on the cardiovascular system

At a low concentration level, a Zhi Qiao decoction has shown to increase the contractility of the isolated toad heart, while at a high concentration level, it has the opposite effect. When administered to rabbits, cats, and dogs by intravenous injections, both the decoction and an ethanol-based extract of Zhi Qiao can increase the subjects’ blood pressure and decrease the renal volume. (6)

Effects on the gastrointestinal tract

Zhi Qiao decoctions promote gastrointestinal movement in mice. It inhibits isolated rabbit intestinal smooth muscles and relieves acetylcholine- and BaCl2-induced enterospasm. (7)

Effects on liver cell energy charges in rats

Experiments have shown that when administered to rats, Zhi Qiao can decrease the subjects’ liver cell charge by 9 to 33.5%. (8)

References

  1. Lu Ye Mai Hong, et al. Chemistry and pharmacology of Zhi Shi, Shan Jiao, and Gua Lou Ren. Foreign Medicine vol. of TCM. 1986;8(6):17-20.
  2. Research center of Hunan Medicine Industry. A brief summary of chemical research on Zhi Shi components that raise blood pressure. Materia Medica Bulletin. 1976;(5):6-9.
  3. Cai Yi Ping, et al. Volatile oils of herbs of the Aurantium family. Journal of Materia Medica. 1998;21(11):567-569.
  4. Annals of Materia Medica (III). Beijing: People’s Medical Publishing House, 1984.
  5. Cai Yi Ping, et al. Chemical composition and pharmacology of herbs of the Aurantium family. Journal of Jiangxi College of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 1999;11(1):18-19.
  6. Cai Yi Ping, et al. Chemical composition and pharmacology of herbs of the Aurantium family. Journal of Jiangxi College of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 1999;11(1):18-19.
  7. Ma Ya Bing. Zhi Qiao’s effects on gastoinstestinal movement. Journal of Pharmacology of Clinical Application of TCM. 1996;12(6): 28-29.
  8. Zhang Cheng Jun, et al. Effects of qi-invigorating and –regulating herbs on rat liver cell energy charge. Journal of Integrated Medicine. 1988;8(8):477-478, 494.