Corchorus capsularis

Synonyms

No documentation

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia: Kancing Baju
English: Juteplant, White Jute, Nalta Jute, Tossa Jute. [1]

General Information

Description

Corchorus capsularis or jute is known as fiber plant [1] and is grown extensively in West Bengal and East Pakistan, which have monopoly on jute production. [2] This plant is eaten as a vegetable in North Africa, the Middle and Near East, Bangladesh, and South East Asia. [1] C. capsularis is found mostly in clearings, rice paddy banks and in low, open and wet places in or near settlements. [3] It is able to reach a height of measuring 13 ft. The seeds of C. capsularis are larger in size compared to other species and are nut-brown in colour. [2]

Plant Part Used

Leaves, seeds and fruits. [4][10]

Chemical Constituents

The phytochemical screening of the leaves of C. capsularis showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids and triterpenes. [4] It is also rich in vitamin, carotenoid, calcium, potassium and dietary fiber.  C. capsularis leaves contain two functional compounds; phytol (3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol) and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol(1,2-di-O-α-linolenoyl-3-O-β-D- galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol). [1]

The polysaccharides and lignin (estimated as klason lignin) were the major constituents in bark, stem and fibre of the C. capsularis. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, six low-molecular weight sugar alcohols (glycerol, erythreitol, threitol, rhamnitol, arabinitol, and mannitol), and two inositols (myo-inositol and scyllitol) were identified and quantified in the bark; all these compounds, except rhamnitol were also measured in the stick.  Cellulose, xylans and pectins were the major polysaccharide constituents which were produced during fibre production by the retting process. [5]

C. capsularis also contains capsin, a glycoside, which is responsible for the major bitter taste of the leaves of C. capsularis.  Another glycoside (capsugenin-30-O-β-glucopyranoside) was also isolated from the leaves of C. capsularis. [6] The capsin was identified as the 3-glucoside of 20, 24-epoxy-3β, 12β, 25, 30-tetrahydroxydammarane. [7]

The bark and the stem of unretted C. capsularis were found to contain various free, glycosidic and ester-linked phenolic acids. [8] About 80% of the aqueous ethanol extract contained p-coumaric (major component), ferulic, caffeic, vanillic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids. [8] The ferulic and p-coumaric acids were the main components of phenolic acid in fresh and retted bark. p-Hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, vanillic and caffeic acids were present in varying amounts in different C. capsularis fractions. [9]

The acid components of the seed fats of C. capsularis consist of palmitic, stearic, arachidic, behenic, lignoceric, cerotic, oleic, linolenic and C20 mono-ethenoid fatty acids.  The components of the fatty acids were 20% saturated acids, 37% oleic acid and 43% linoleic acid. [2]

Traditional Used:

The leaves of C. capsularis have been claimed to possess stimulant, demulcent, laxative, appetizer and stomachic effects.  The infusion of the leaves is traditionally used to treat fever, constipation, dysentery, liver disorders and dyspepsia. [10] A decoction of the unripe fruits or roots was used to treat dysentery. [4] In Japan, the young leaves were used as a substitute for coffee or tea and were regard as a health food. [10]

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology

Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity

The chloroform extract of C. capsularis leaves was investigated for antinociceptive activity using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and hot plate tests in male Balb-C mice and the formalin tests in rats. [4] The extract was given 30 minutes prior to subjection to acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and the hot plate tests.  All concentrations used (10, 50 and 100% strength) showed significant reductions in the number of abdominal constrictions when compared to the control.  The effective antinociceptive activity was seen at 100mg/kg of the chloroform extract when compared to acetylsalicyclic acid (100mg/kg).  The thermally induced noniceptive peripheral stimulus in male Balb-C mice using the hot plate test at 50°C showed a significant concentration-independent antinociceptive activity in the chloroform extract of C. capsularis leaves.  This activity was observed 30 min after the extract administration compared to morphine (5mg/kg) which showed significant activity after 1 hour of its administration. These findings revealed the extract’s effectiveness in inhibiting chemically and thermally-induced nociception.

In the formalin test in rats, the chloroform extract of C. capsularis leaves was given 30 minutes prior to formalin injection.  The extract exhibited significant antinociceptive activity at the early phase of nociception, indicating a neurogenic type of pain response, and also at the late phase of nociception, indicating an inflammatory type of pain response. [4]

The anti-inflammatory profile of the chloroform extract of C. capsularis leaves was measured using carrageenan-induced paw edema test in rats.  The extract at all concentrations (20, 50 and 100mg/kg) caused a significant decrease in the thickness of edematous paw for the first 6 hours compared to the control.  The activity diminished in the last 2 hours of the experimental time compared to the control group.  The postive reference compound used was acetylsalicyclic acid (100mg/kg) which produced significant anti-inflammatory activity.  This test revealed the ability of the extract to block the inflammatory phase of the formalin test, which confirmed the folkloric use of C. capsularis as a demulcent.

Based on all of these findings, the chloroform extract of C. capsularis, possessed antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities which confirmed the traditional claims of using C. capsularis to treat various ailments related to inflammation and pain. [4]

Antitumor promoting activity

Two active components of C. capsularis were identified. [1] These components showed activity against tumor promoter-induced Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) activation in Raji cells.  They were isolated from the fresh leaves of C. capsularis.  The active components were colorless oils and were identified as phytol (3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol) and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (1,2-di-O-α-linolenoyl-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol).

The antitumor-promoting activity was examined by an immunoblotting analysis using a mouse antiserum against EBV producer P3HR-1 cells. Phytol and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol completely inhibited the induction of EBV early antigen at concentrations of 15µg/mL (50.7µM) and 30µg/mL (38.8µM), respectively. However insufficient inhibitory effects were shown by both compounds at concentrations of 10µg/mL and 25µg/mL, respectively. [1]

This study also revealed that both components increased gradually with an increasing in the period of treatment with hot water, indicating that the components were not easily decomposed by high temperature. These findings suggest that treatment of vegetables with hot water effectively increased the amount of active components with activity against tumor-promoting chemicals that may be consumed together with food. [1]

Toxicities

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

C. capsularis has no adverse effects on the human body. [11] 

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

No documentation


Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation.

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation.

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation.

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation.

Case Reports

No documentation.

Read More

  1) Botanical Info

References

  1. Furumoto T, Wang R, Okazaki K, Feroj Hasan A.F.M., Ali M.I, Kondo A, Fukui H. Antitumor Promoters in Leaves of Jute. (Corchorus capsularis, Corchorus olitorius) Food Sci. Technol. Res, 2002; 8(3): 239-243.
  2. Meara M. L. and Sen N. K. The component fatty acids ad glycerides of jute-seed oils. Jurnal of Sci. Food Agric.  3rd May 1952
  3. Philippine Medicinal Plants (http://www.stuartxchange.org/PasauNaBilog.html) Accessed on April 27, 2007.
  4. Zainul AZ, Sulaiman MR, Gopalan HK, Abdul Ghani ZDF, Raden Mohd Nor RNS, Mat Jais AM, Abdullah FC. Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Corchorus capsularis Leaves Chloroform Extract in Experimental Animal Models. Yakugaku Zasshi.2007; 127(2): 359-365.
  5. Mosihuzzamana M., Theander O. and Amanb P. Analysis of Carbohydrates in the Jute Plant (Corchorus capsularis) J. Sci. Food Agric. 1982; 33:1207-1212.
  6. Quader MA, Ahmed M, Hasan CM, Waterman PG. Capsugenin-30-0-p -glucopyranoside: A new glycoside from the leaves of Corchorus capsularis. Journal of Natural Products. Vol. 50: No. 3. May-Jun 1987; pp. 479-481,.
  7. Hasan CM, Islam A, Ahmed M, Ahmed M and Watermans PG.  Capsugenin, a dammarane triterpene from Corchorus capsularis. Phytochemistry. 1984; 23(11): pp 2283-2587.
  8. Mosihuzzaman M., Chowdhury T. A., Mollah A. H., Theander O. and Lundgren LN Phenolic Acids in the Jute Plant (Corchorus capsularis) J. Sci. Food Agri: 42. 1988; 141-147.  
  9. Mosihuzzaman M., Fazlul Hoque M., Chowdhury TA. Phenolic Acids in Fresh and Retted Jute Plants (Corchorus capsularis and Corchorus olitorius). J. Sci. Food Agric. 42.1988;141-147.
  10. Plants for A Future, Plants for a future: Edible, medicinal, and useful plants for a healthier world (Corchorus olitorius L.) (http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants), Accessed on May 3, 2007.
  11. Skeuro Limited Home (http://www.skeuroltd.bd.com/about_jute.html)   Accessed on May 3, 2007.