Sophora tomentosa

Synonyms

Sophora tomentosa, Sophora occidentalis [12]Sophora glabra Hassk [16]

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia Pelotok, Pelochok [16]
English Sea Side Pigeon Pea [1], Yellow Sophora, Necklace Pod [4], Silver Bush
Indonesia Lolang Badjo, Lolang Pante [16]
Philippines Manguyao, Mantala, Bangil, Baraumaran, Cabaicabai, Cauai, Guison, Olaumag, Pangalangan [8]
Sri Lanka Mudu-murunga [17]
Chinese          Houang-ky
South Pacific (Eua/Tonga); Pofatu’ao’ao (Tahiti, Society Island); Runa (Tupai, Society Island) [14]
Kenya           Utupa-wamwitu [16]
West Indies Sophora (Bahamas, Texas); Haricot bastard (Gaudeloupe, Martinique); Micar (Cayman Islands); Tambalista (Cuba) [9]

General Information

Description

Sophora tomentosa is a member of the Fabaceae family. It is an erect, evergreen, bushy shrub growing up to 2 m high. The branches are round, greyish, straight, erect, and rather simple, but distantly subdivided. When young theyr are covered with dense, adpressed, very short and close satae giving them a somewhat haory and mealy grey appearance. The petiole is subquandrangular, compressed or with the sides flattened and broader than above, where it is strongly but narrowly channelled; haory, like the young leaves and branches. The leaflets from 6-9 in number, but generally in 8 pairs with an odd terminal one; on short, flattened, pale flesh-coloured downy petiolules with edges slightly revolute. They measures 0.5-1 cm long and 0. 5 to 0.75 cm wide, broadly oval; dark glossy green above and pale beneath. The flowers are bright lemon-yellow, middle-sized, scentless in erect, leafless panicles measuring from 15-30 cm long, truly lateral and axillary but at first appearing terminal. The bracteas are small, linea-subulate, adpresso-pubescent. The pedicels measure 0.5-0.75 cm long, round, adpress0-pubescent, erecto-patent, jointed close beneath the calyx. The standard reflexed, uniform and bright yellow. The keel and wings are of equal length, nearly as long, and the same uniform colour as the standard. The stamens 10; their filaments nearly whitem, smooth upwards, but pubescent and thickened at the base; perfectly distinct and free throughout. The anthers pale brown. The style simple, with the stigma truncate, smooth, green and about the length of the stamens. The ovary linear, silky, containing many ovules. The pods measure 12-15 cm long, curved, drooping, indehiscent, moniliform. The seeds forming globose, bead-like knots, pale yellowish, finally dark brown or blackish, haory with very fine cinereous pubescence. There are 5-12 seeds the size of a small pea in a pod. The seeds are subglobose or subcordate, a little pointed both at top and bottom, with a faint, indistict groove down the back, quite smooth and shining, tawny brown or dark fawn colour, darker about the hilum, which is a small elliptic cavity with dark edges. [1]

Plant Part Used

Roots, Stems, Leaves and Seeds [13] [15]

Chemical Constituents

(-)-epilamprolobine; (+)-epilamprolobine N-oxide; (+)-sophocarpine -oxide; (+)-kuraramine; isokuraramine; 5-(3-methoxycarbonylbutyroyl)aminomethy-trans-quinolizidine N-oxide; N-acetylcytisine; (+)-matrine; (+)-matrine N-oxide; (+)-sophocarpine N-oxide; (−)-anagyrine; (−)- baptifoline; (−)-cytisine; (−)-N-methylcytisine; (−)-N-formylcytisine; (−)-N-acetylcytisine; (±)-ammodendrine; sophoracarpans A and B; wighteone; tomentosanols A-E; sophoraflavanone A - I; naringenin; hesperetin; 6-prenylbaringenin; euchrestaflavanone A; diadzein; genistein; sophoronol; isosophoranone; sophoraisoflavanonoe A; secundifloran; secundiflorol A, D, E, F; tetrapterol G. [2] [3] [5] [6] [7] [10]

Traditional Used:

S. tomentosa, is known to be diuretic, sudorific and purgative. [9] To the Chinese the roots is considered an esteemed tonic, diuretic and pectoral. [18] The seeds are considered frebrifuge and stomachic. [15]

Gastrointestinal Diseases

Amongst the Malay population of the Malay Archipelago this plant is the best remedy for cholera. In the Malay Peninsula powdered roots are used to treat diarrhoea while the root bark and seeds are the remedy for cholera, diarrhoea and consequences of food poisoning. [9] The Filipinos made use of the decoction of the roots, stem or seeds for cholera. [15] However, two seeds are considered a drastic purgative. In India the seeds are made use of to relieve bilious attacks. Infusion of the roots are also made use of for the same condition. [13]

Other use

In the West Indies it is used against venereal diseases. The roots and seeds are used to treat wounds and skin problems by the Malays.[9] In Rorotonga the leaves are used to treat cancer of the breast.[11] The Filipinos extracts oil from the seeds and used them externally for bone-aches and also as an expectorant. [15]

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology


No documentation

Toxicities

The seeds of S. tomentosa are poisonous due to the presence of cytisine(sophorine) and other related alkaloids with properties similar to nicotine. All parts of the plant contain poisonous alkaloids. The juice of the plant is used a a fish poison in Eas Africa and as an insecticide in Fiji.[9]

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation


Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

References

    1. John Sims Curtis's botanical magazine, or, flower-garden displayed Volume 62 Sauel Curtis London 1835 pg 3390
    2. Arnold Brossi The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Pharmacology Volume 31 Academic Press Inc. San Diego 1987 pp. 120, 131, 146
    3. Geoffrey A. Cordell, Ian W. Southon, J. Buckingham Dictionary of alkaloids, Volume 1 Chapman and Hall Ltd. London 1989 pg. 588
    4. Alfred Richardson, Ken King Plants of Deep South Texas: A Field Guide to the Woody and Flowering Species Everbest Printing Co. China 2010 pg. 273
    5. Isamu Murakoshi, Eiji Kidoguchi, Minako Nakamura, Joju Haginiwa, Shigeru Ohmiya, Kimio Higashiyama and Hirotaka Otomasu (−)-Epilamprolobine and its N-oxide, lupin alkaloids from Sophora tomentosa Phytochemistry 1981 Vol. 20(7):1725-1730
    6. Kinoshita T., Ichinose K., Takahashi C., Feng-Chi Ho,  Jin-Bin Wu,  Sankawa U., Chemical studies on Sophora tomentosa : the isolation of a new class of isoflavonoid Chemical and pharmaceutical bulletin 1990, vol. 38(10):2756-2759
    7. Toshiyuki Tanaka, Munekazu Iinuma, Fujio Asai, Masayosi Ohyama and Charles L. Burandt Flavonoids from the root and stem of Sophora tomentosa Phytochemistry December 1997 Volume 46(8):1431-1437
    8. Elmer Drew Merrill A Dictionary of the Plant Names of the Philippine Islands BiblioLife LLC Manila 1903 pp. 29, 30, 40, 50, 63, 84, 89, 93
    9. Daniel F. Austin Florida ethnobotany CRC Press Boca Raton 2004 pg 638-639
    10. Noboru Motohashi Bioactive Heterocycles VII: Flavonoids and Anthocyanins in Plants Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg 2009 pp. 56, 61, 62
    11. Massimo Maffei Dietary supplements of plant origin: a nutrition and health approach Taylor & Francis London 2003 pg. 221
    12. William Townsend Aiton Hortus Kewensis Volume Vol III Longman, Hurst, Reesm, Orme and Borwn, London 1811 pg. 2
    13. John R. Jackson On the products of the Pea Family (Leguminosae) The Technologist Volume II Kent & Co London 1862   pg. 263 – 273
    14. Polynisein (http://www.polynesien.minks-lang.de/a.pol.englisch/pol1.arten.s/sophora.tomentosa1.html) Accessed on 16th July 2010)
    15. Medicinal Plants of the Philippines (http://www.bpi.da.gov.ph/Publications/mp/pdf/t/tambalisa.pdf) Accessed on: 16th July 2010
    16. Peter Hanelt, R. Büttner, Rudolf Mansfeld, Institut für Pflanzengenetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung Gatersleben Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops Springer-Verlag Berlin 2001 pg. 638
    17. H. F. MacMillanHandbook of Tropical Plants Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi 2001 pg. 135
    18. Philibert Dabry De Thie Lacon Soubeiran La Matiere Medicale Chez Les Chinois BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2008 pg. 278