Annona reticulata

Synonyms

 

Anona humboldtii, Anona humboldtiana, Anona laevis, Anona longifolia.

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia Lonang, Nona Kapri
English Bullock's Heart, Custard Apple, Jamaican Apple, Netted Custard Apple, Sugar Apple[1]; Sweetsop [2]
Thailand Noi Nong
Filipino Sarikaya
Lao (Sino-Tibetan) Khan tua lot
Khmer Mean Bat, Mo Bat
Vietnamese Binh Bat, Qua Na
Hindi Luvun, Nonai, Ramphal
French Bois Cachiman, Cachiman, Coeur de Boeuf, Corossol Sauvage
Dutch Boeah Nona, Kasjoema
Portuguese Condesa, Coração de boi
Spanish Anona Colorada, Anona de Redecilla, Anona de Seso, Anona Roja, Anona Rosada, Corazón, Mamon

General Information

Description

Annona reticulata L. is a member of the Annonaceae family. It is a low, erect tree with rounded or spreading crown and the trunk measures 25-35cm in diameter. It grows up to 10m high. The leaves are deciduous, alternating, oblong or narrow-lanceolate, measuring 10-20cm long and 2-5cm wide with conspicuous veins and ill-smelling. The flowers are in drooping clusters, are fragrant, slender, with 3 outer fleshy, narrow petals 2-3cm long. They are never fully opened. The fruit is compound, measuring 8-16cm in diameter, may be symmetrically heart-shaped, lopsided, irregular, or nearly round, with a depression at the base. The skin, thin but tough, may be yellow or brownish when ripe, with a pink, reddish or brownish-red blush, and faintly, moderately, or distinctly reticulated. There is a thick, cream-white layer of custard-like, somewhat granular flesh beneath the skin surrounding the concolorous moderately juicy segments, in many of which there is a single, hard, dark-brown or black glossy seed, oblong, smooth, less than 1.25cm long. A pointed fibrous central core, attached to the thick stem, extends more than halfway through the fruit. [3]

Plant Part Used

Leaves, Fruit, Bark, Root. [1][2][3]

Chemical Constituents

Kaurane and Kaur-16-ene Diterpenes, annoreticuin-9-one, squamone, solamin, annomonicin and rolliniastatin 2, cis-/trans-isomurisolenin, annoreticuin, annoreticuin-9-one, bullatacin, squamocin, cis-/trans-bullatacinone and cis-/trans-murisolinone, reticulatacin, (−)-kau-16-en-19-oic acid and methyl 16β,17-dihydro-(−)-kauran-19-oate, liriodenine, reticulacinone, rolliniastatin-2 (=bullatacin=annonin-VI) and molvizarin, dieporeticanin-1 and -2, dieporeticenin, trieporeticanin

Traditional Used:

Gastrointestinal Diseases

Dried, pulverized unriped fruit or decoction of the bark is used in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery.[1] In the Philippines the warmed leaves is applied over the abdomen to relieve indigestion in babies and children.[2] Tea made from the leaves of A. reticulata is used for relieving colic.[3] Fruits have anthelmintic properties.

Infectious Diseases

Crushed leaves or paste of the flesh are poulticed on abscesses to aid its maturity and on ulcers. Roots are used in the form of a decoction for fever and the root bark is placed around the gums to relieve toothache.[1] Decoction of the leaves helps in relieving malaria and syphillis.[3]

Other uses

The roots used for epilepsy.[2]

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology

Antioxidant activity

A study of the antioxidant potentials of three most common Annona species was carried out. In this study it was proven that the leaves extracts of A. reticulata showed activities in quenching DPPH and superoxide radicals. [4]

Anti-cancer activity

Acetogenins have been found to be potent cytotoxic inhibitors of the mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I of the respiratory chain). Annonaceous acetogenins are a group of compounds isolated from plants of the Annonaceae family which have potentials of being anti-neoplastic agents. A study isolated 5 annonaceous acetogenins (annoreticulin-9-one, squamone, solamin, annomonicin and rolliniastatin) with cytotoxic activities from the plant. Subsequently they isolated more acetogenins from the seeds of A. reticulata (cis-/trans-isomurisolenin, annoreticulin, annoreticulin-9-one, bullatacin, squamocin, cis-/trans-bullatacinone and cis-/trans-murisolinone. Some of these compounds showed potent cytotoxicities against Hep. 2,3,15, Hep. G2, KB and CCM2, four cancer cell-lines. They further purified annonacin from the seeds of A. reticulata and analysed its biological acitivity. They found that this compound caused cell death in various cancer cell lines. Amongst them are T24 bladder cancer cells which was inhibited at the S phase of cell division. They also observed that annonacin activated p21 in a p53-independent manner and arrested T24 cells at the G1 phase. It aslo induced Bax expression, enhanced caspase-3 activity, and acused apoptotic cell death in T24 cells. They recently purified squamocin from the seeds of A. reticulata and analysed its biological effects. Their findings indicate that squamocin was cytotoxic to all the cancer cell lines tested. In particular it arrested the T24 bladder cancer cell at the G1 phase and caused a selective cytotoxicity on S-phase-enriched T24 cells. It induced them expression of Bax and Bad pro-apoptotic genes, enhanced caspase-3 activity, cleaved the functional protein of PARP and caused cell apoptosis. [5][6][7][8]

Toxicities

The kernels of A. reticulata are very toxic. The sap from cut branches are acrid and irritant and acn cause severy injury to the eyes. Resins from the seeds and derived acetogenins can be hazadous to humans, especially the eyes.

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

Read More

  1) Botanical Info

References

  1. http://www.worldagroforestrycentre.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/af/asp/SpeciesInfo.asp?SpID=1746#Uses access on 24/3/2010
  2. http://www.stuartxchange.org/Anonas.html access on 4/5/2010
  3. James A. Duke, Judith L. DuCellier,  CRC handbook of alternative cash crops, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1993.  pg44
  4. Baskar R, Rajeswari V, Kumar TS. In vitro antioxidant studies in leaves of Annona species. Indian J Exp Biol. 2007 May;45(5):480-5.
  5. Chang FR, Wu YC, Duh CY, Wang SK. Studies on the acetogenins of Formosan annonaceous plants. II. Cytotoxic acetogenins from Annona reticulata. J Nat Prod. 1993 Oct;56(10):1688-94.
  6. Chang FR, Chen JL, Chiu HF, Wu MJ, Wu YC. Acetogenins from seeds of Annona reticulata. Phytochemistry. 1998 Mar;47(6):1057-61.
  7. Yuan SS, Chang HL, Chen HW, Yeh YT, Kao YH, Lin KH, Wu YC, Su JH. Annonacin, a mono-tetrahydrofuran acetogenin, arrests cancer cells at the G1 phase and causes cytotoxicity in a Bax- and caspase-3-related pathway. Life Sci. 2003 May 9;72(25):2853-61.
  8. Yuan SS, Chang HL, Chen HW, Kuo FC, Liaw CC, Su JH, Wu YC. Selective cytotoxicity of squamocin on T24 bladder cancer cells at the S-phase via a Bax-, Bad-, and caspase-3-related pathways. Life Sci. 2006 Jan 18;78(8):869-74. Epub 2005 Sep 8.