Pterocarpus indicus

Synonyms

No documentation

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia

Padauk, Pokok Sena, Angsana

English Andaman rosewood, Burmese rosewood, Philippine mahogany, Narra, Amboyna
Indonesia

Sena, Linggod, Sonokembag, Angsana, Angsena, Chendana merah

Thailand

Praduu baan, Pradoo, Duu baan

Burma

Ansanah, Pashu-padauk

vietnam

Gi[as]ng h[uw][ow]ng

Laos

Chandeng

Philippines

Antagan, Asana, Naga, Agana

India

Narra, Vengai (Tamil); Yerravegisa (Telagu)

French

Santal rouge amboine

Pacific Islands

Bluwota (Vanuatu); Liki (Solomon Islands); Pinati (Samoa)

General Information

Description

Pterocarpus indicus is a member of the Fabaceae family. It is a large deciduous tree which can reach up to 40 m high with a trunk of up to 2 m in diameter. The leaves measures 12-22 cm long. while the pinnate, with 5 – 11 leaflets. The leaflets are rather large measuring 7 x 3.5 to 11 x 5.5 cm and ovate to elliptic in shape with a pronounced acuminate tip. The flowers are in panicles measure 6-13 cm long containing a few to numerous flowers. They are slightly fragrant and have yellow or orange petals. The fruit is a semiorbicular pod measures 2-3 cm in diameter surrounded by a flat 4-6 cm diameter membranous wing which aids dispersal by water. It contains one to two seeds, and does not split open at maturity. [3]

Plant Part Used

Barks and roots [3] [4]

Chemical Constituents

Formononetin, isoliquiritigenin, (-)-p-hydroxyhydratropic acid, and a new 2-arylbenzofuran, anglolensin and pterocarpin. [7]

Traditional Used:

Gastrointestinal Diseases

The bark of P. indicus yields a resin known as kino or Dragon’s Blood. The decoction of the bark is used to tread diarrhoea and dysenstery. This usage is popular amongst the Indians and South Pacific Islanders. [1] [3] In Papua New Guinea it is used as a purgative.

Gynaecological Diseases

The South Pacific Islanders use parts of the plant to treat heavy menstruation and also ammenorhhoea. A decoction of the leaves is used to treat amenorrhoea in Vanuatu. In the Philippines the plant is used to treat menstrual pain. It is also used in the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases like syphilis and gonorrhoea. For syphilitic sores and mouth ulcers the juice extracted from the roots is used by the Malays in Malaysia. [3] [4]

Other uses

In Papua New Guinea the plant I used to treat tuberculosis, headaches and sores. In the Philippines it is used to treat leprosy, flu, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes. In Indonesia on the other hand it is used to treat boils, ulcers and prickly heat rashes. [3]

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology

Antimicrobial activity

Ioliolide and paniculatadiol isolated from the ethyl acetate leaf extract of P. indicus showed moderate activity against Candida albicans and low activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger. It is inactive against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. [5]

A study of the antibacterial activity of the leaves, roots and stem bark of P. indicus showed that all fractions (petrol dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol and methanol) exhibited a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity more pronouced in the butanol and methanol fractions. [6]

Toxicities

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

Pregnant ladies are not advised to take the drug since it has abortifacient properties as evidenced by its use in the South Pacific Islands for treatment of amenorrhoea. [3]

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

References

  1. C.P. Khare Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary Springer-Verlag Berlin 2007 pg. 524
  2. Elmer Drew Merrill A Dictionary of the Plant Names of the Philippine Islands BiblioLife LLC Manila 2009 pgs. 12, 18, 20 & 87
  3. Pterocarpus – narra http://www.agroforestry.net/tti/Pterocarpus-narra.pdf Accessed date: 14th August 2010
  4. G. Bourdy and A. Walter Maternity and Medicinal Plants in Vanuatu I. The cycle of reporduction Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 1992 37:179 - 196 (http://horizon.documentation.ird.fr/exl-doc/pleins_textes/pleins_textes_6/b_fdi_47-48/010010404.pdf)  Accessed on 14th August 2010
  5. Ragasa CY, De Luna RD, Hofilena JG. Antimicrobial terpenoids from Pterocarpus indicus. Nat Prod Res. 2005 Jun;19(4):305-9.
  6. Khan MR, Omoloso AD. Antibacterial activity of Pterocarpus indicus. Fitoterapia. 2003 Sep;74(6):603-5.
  7. RG Cooke and ID Rae Isoflavonoids. I. Some new constituents of Pterocarpus indicus heartwoodAustralian Journal of Chemistry 17(3) 379 – 384