Articles

Lophatherum gracile

Synonyms

Lophatherum japonicum, Lophatherum lehmanni, Acroelytrum japonicum [1]

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia

Rumput Buluh, Resam Buluh, Rumput Kelurut, Rumput Jarang, Rumput Bulu, Rumput Ulu-ulu, Rumput Ubi Buluh

Indonesia

Rumput Kelorak

China

Dan Zhu Ye

Hongkong

Dam Juk Yip

Japan

Tan Chiku Yo

Korea

Dam Juk Yeap [5][7]

General Information

Description

Lophatherum gracile is a member of the Poaceae family. It is a loosely tufted herb with short knotty rhizomes. Leaf-sheaths are glabrous, striate, measure 6-5cm long.The leaf blades are glabrous, ovate to narrowly ovate and measuring 8-15 x 1.5-5cm with distinct cross veins between the main veins. The inflorescence is paniculate, loosely branched, measures 15-30cm long with branches arising from 3-6 nodes, solitary or up to 2 in a whorls. The spikelets are 1-flowered measure 7-10mm long, greenish; glumes unequal; fertile lemma aristate; palea membranous. The rachilla extends beyond the fertile floret and bears 6-12 lemmas, each arstate and retrosely scabrous. [4]

Plant Part Used

Leaves and tuberous roots [7][8]

Chemical Constituents

Arundoin; b-sitosterol; campesterol; cylindrin; friedelin; isorientin; isovitexin; orientin; stigmasterol; taraxasterol; vitexin [2][12]

Traditional Used:

L. gracile is much revered by Traditional Chinese medicine man. The considered the plant to be sweet, bland and cold and is associated with the heart, small intestine and stomach meridians. It helps in clearing heat in stomach, heart and small intestine and promotes urination.

Inflammatory Conditions

The leaves are used to treat canker sores in the mouth, buccal sores, swollen gums and pharyngitis. Decoction of the leaves is also used to treat urinary tract infection and at the same time relieves haematuria, oliguria, dysuria and strangury. [3][5][6]

Other uses

The whole plant form part of the ingredient in a pot herb prepared for women after delivery. The tuber is considered an aphrodisiac and is believed to increase semen production. [7][8]

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology

Antibacterial activity

Liu et al. [13] found that the extract of L. gracile had inhibitory effects on Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus haemolyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The extract also had very good heat stability and effective in the pH range of 4-9.

Vasorelaxant activity

The ethanol extract of L. gracile showed vasorelaxant activity in isolated aortic tissue of rats. The mechanism of action is via an endothelial dependent NO-cGMP signaling pathway which is in part related to the function of the K+ channels. [14]

Toxicities

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

L. gracile form part of the ingredient of a herbal preparation which was the subject of study for the treatment of minimal brain dysfunction (MBD). Zhang et al found that the group receiving this preparation had their clinical symptoms and signs eliminated, their IQ raised by 10 units, the EEG showed recovery and there were no cases of recurrence during the first six months of follow up after recovery.

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

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  1)  Botanical Info

References

  1. Matsumura, Hayata Enumeratio Plantarum Formosanarum The Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo Volume XXII University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo 1906 pg. 546
  2. Hson-Mou Chang, Paul Pui-Hay, Sih-Cheng Yao Pharmacology and Applications of Chinese Materia Medica Volume II World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. Singapore 1987 pg. 1207
  3. Xinrong Yang Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Manual from A – Z Symptoms, Therapy and Herbal Remedies Springer-Verlag Berlin 2003 pg 104
  4. Hsuan Keng, S.C.Chin, H.T.W. Tan The Concise Flora of Singapore Volume II: Monocotyledons Singapore University Press Singapore 1998 pg. 103
  5. Takeatsu Kimura, Paul P.H.But, Ji-Xian Guo, Chung Ki Sung International Collation of Traditional and Folk Medicine: Northeast Asia World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. Singapore 2001 pg. 197
  6. Nina Lilian Etkin Plants in Indigenous Medicine and Diet Routledge Oxford 1986 pg. 62
  7. Muhamad Zakaria and Mustafa Ali Mohd. Traditional Malay Medicinal Plants Institut Terjemahan Negara Malaysia Berhad Kuala Lumpur 2010 pg. 103
  8. Batugal, P.A.; Kanniah, J; Sy, L; Oliver J.T Medicinal Plant Research in Asia-Volume 1
  9. Yuan K, Xue YQ, Yin MW, Lou LH. [Simultaneous determination of four glycosylflavones from Lophatherum gracile by RP-HPLC] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2008 Oct;33(19):2215-8.
  10. Naturopathy  Digest - Lophatherum (dan zhu ye) (http://www.naturopathydigest.com/nutrition_herbs/herbs/lophatherum.php) [Accessed on 05th November 2010]
  11. Zhang H, Huang J. [Preliminary study of traditional Chinese medicine treatment of minimal brain dysfunction: analysis of 100 cases] Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1990 May;10(5):278-9, 260.
  12. Yuan K, Xue YQ, Yin MW, Lou LH. [Simultaneous determination of four glycosylflavones from Lophatherum gracile by RP-HPLC] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2008 Oct;33(19):2215-8.
  13. Liu Xiaorong Study on Antimicrobial Effect of the Extract from Lophatherum Gracile Brongn Journal of Guangdong Industy Technical College 2008-02
  14. Hye Yoom Kim, Xiang Li, Dae Gill Kang and Ho Sub Lee Effect of Lophatherum gracile Brongn on the mechanism of vasorelaxation in thoracic aorta FASEB Journal April 2010 24(Meeting Abstract Supplement) 986.15