Articles

Pandanus odoratissimus

Synonyms

Pandanus tectorius, Pandanus loureirii, Pandanus tectorius, Pandanus odoratissimua [1]

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia Pandan Pudak, Mengkuang Laut
English Screw pine
Indonesia Mengkuang Laut
Philippines
Pandan dagat
India
Ketaki (Sanskrit); Keura (Hindi)
French Pandanus, Vacouet
South Pacific
Ajbwirok, Anewetak (Pingelap Atoll, Pohnpei); Binu (Kapingamarangi Atoll, Pohnpei); Bob (Marshall Islands); choy, Fach, Far (Yap); Deipw, Fach, Far (Chuuk); Deipw, Kipar (Pohnpei); Epo (Nauru); Fa Fafa, Laufala, Falahola, Kuku-valu, Lou’akau (Tonga);Fala, Lau fala (Samoa, Tuvalu); Hala (Nukuoro Atoll, Pohnpei); Hala, Pu hala (Hawaii); Kafu (Guam); Mweng (Kosrae); Ongor (Palau); Pandanas (Vanuatu, Bislama); Te Kaina (Kiribati); Vadra, Voivoi (Fiji) [1]

General Information

Description

Pandanus odoratissimus is a member of the Panadanaceae family. It is a stout, branching and often multi-stemmed large shrub or small tree than can reach up to 18 m high. They have numerous aerial and prop roots and thick forking spiny trunk. The leaves are variable in leaf shape and size. Thye are spirally-arranged in three rows and clustered at branch apices, dark green in colour, 1-3 m long by 11-16 cm wide, V- to Y-shaped in section with spiny or prickly marfins and midribs. Marginal prickles measure 0.8-2.5 mm long. The plant is dioecious with separate male and female plants. The flowers are borne in heads at the shoot apex. The male flowers are fragrant, tiny, white in colour, pendant, arranged in racemes or branched in clusters, with large white showy bracts. Male flowers only last for about a day, with the inflorescence decaying within 3 to 4 days. Female flowers are pineapple like. The fruit head may be ovoid in shape, ellipsoid, subglobose or globose with overall dimensions of 8-30 cm long by 4-20 cm diametre. The fruit head is made up of tightly bunched, wedge-shaped fleshy phalanges or drupes. Individual phalanges are narrowly oblong to ovoid in shape measuring 2.5-11 cm long by 1.5-6.7 cm wide. The seeds are ovoid, ellipsoid or oblong in shape measuring 6-20 mm long, red-brown and whitish/gelatinous inside in colour.[2]

Plant Part Used

Roots and Leaves [2] [3]

Chemical Constituents

2-phenyl ethyl alcohol; 2-phenyl ethyl methyl ether; terpinen-4-ol; 3-hydroxy-2-isopropenyl-dihydrobenzofuran-5-carboxylic acid methyl ester;  3-methyl-3-buten-1-yl acetate; 3-methyl-3-buten-1-yl cinnamate; 3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl acetate; 3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl cinnamate;  3,4-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl) tetrahydrofuran;  4-hydroxy-3-(2′,3′-dihydroxy-3′-methylbutyl)-benzoic acid methyl ester; 24,24-dimethyl-5 beta-tirucall-9; 25-dien-3-one; α-terpineol; β-carotene; beta-sitosterol; benzyl benzoate; pinoresinol; germacrene B;  stigmasterol; viridine; vitamin C.[5] [6] [7]

Traditional Used:

Obstetrics and Gynaecology

In the Marshall Islands[3] this plant is used for a number of conditions related to the female reproductive organs. In the immediate period after delivery the mother if given a concoction of juice from the aerial root together with green coconut water. For abnormal menstrual bleeding 500ml of the juice squeezed from the aerial roots is given to the woman to drink while abnormal vaginal bleeding is treated by applying the pulverized thorny bumps together with white rock ash on a sanitary napkin and worn over the perineum.

Gastrointestinal Diseases

In infants with jaundice, restlessness and colic, the juice squeezed from the aerial roots together with Centella asiatica is given to the infant in a dose of one teaspoon and then the rest is rub over the whole body of the infant.[3] For oral thrush the juice of the soft part of the aerial root is squeezed into the child’s mouth.[3] In Palau Island[2] a drink prepared from the root alleviates stomachache while the leaves can help relieve vomiting. In Kiribati decoction of the root is a remedy for haemorrhoids.[2] Water distilled from the flowering tops is considered an antispasmodic while at the same time helps in relieve of faintness and giddiness.[4]

Other uses

The oil extracted from the flowering tops of P. odoratissimus is used to treat earaches and otorrhoea[4] The leaves are remedy for cold/flu, asthma, boils and cancer in Kiribati. In the Marshall Islands the male flower is believed to have aphrodisiac properties.[2]

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology

Antioxidant activity

Two phenolic compounds isolated from the root parts of P. odoratissimus were identified as pinoresinol and 3,4-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)tetrahydrofuran. They showed strong antioxidative activities. A recent study done by Londonkar and Kamble[8] showed that the methanol extract of the leaves exhibits antioxidant activity evidenced by an 88% reduction of DPPH and 74% inhibition of nitric acid; there was also inhibition of superoxide radicals.[6]

Toxicities

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

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  1) Botanical Info

References

    1. E. Merrill Loureiro’s “Flora Cochinchinensis” Transactions, American Philosophical Society (Vol.24, Part 2, June 1935) American Philosophical Society Philadelphia 1935 pg. 68
    2. Craig R. Elevitch Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands: Their Culture, Environment, and Use Permanent Agriculture Resources Holualoa 2006pg. 565 – 566
    3. Irene J. Taafaki, Maira Kabua Fowler, Randolph R. Thaman Traditional Medicine of the Marshall Islands IPS Publications Suva 2006 pg. 79 – 81
    4. C.F. Leyel Compassionate Herbs Read Books 2007 pg. 157
    5. Vahirua-lechata, C. Menutb, B. Roiga, J. M. Bessierea and G. Lamatya Isoprene related esters, significant components of Pandanus tectorius Phytochemistry 1996 Volume 43(6):1277-1279
    6. Ting-Ting Jong and Shang-Whang Chau Antioxidative Activities of constituents Isolated from Pandanus odoratissimus Phytochemistry 1998 Volume 49(7):2145 – 2148
    7. V. K. Raina, Ajai Kumar, S. K. Srivastava, K. V. Syamsundar, A. P. Kahol Essential oil composition of ‘kewda’ (Pandanus odoratissimus) from India Flavour and Fragrance Journal 2004 Volume 19(5):434 – 436
    8. R. Londonkar and A. Kamble Evaluation of Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Pandanus odoratissimus International Journal of Pharmacology, 2009