Mucuna pruriens

 

Mucuna pruriens

Synonyms

No documentation

Vernacular Name

Velvet bean, cowitch, cowhage, buffalo bean, mucuna.

Description

Mucuna pruriens belongs to the Fabaceae family and is a tropical legume. Its traditional uses include aphrodisiac and improving glucose levels. It is also used as a fodder plant in many areas of the world.

M. pruriens is an annual climbing shrub in the family Fabaceae. Occasionally reaching a length of 15m or more at maturity, this climber is initially covered in a velvety pubescence when young. The stem is thin and, at its base, a light brown. M. pruriens yields long, ovate or lanceolate leaves which range from 15-30 cm in length. The leaves are heavily grooved and covered in a light pubescence. The inflorescence of M. pruriens is arranged on axillary panicles in groups of two or three. The flowers are range between white and purple in color and the bells are no more than 1cm wide. The fruit of M. pruriens is perhaps its most singular characteristic. The leguminous fruit are encased in a 8-13 cm pod. The dark brown pod is covered heavily in a velvety, light brown pubescence. Each of the thick hairs on the seed pod are roughly 2.5mm in length. The seeds are roughly 1cm in diameter and can range in color from black to white. Each seed is covered in very small barbs which make them irritating when touched.

Origin / Habitat

M. pruriens has been used traditionally used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine and originated in India, growing in the southern part of the country and surrounding islands. This plant requires nutrient rich, moist soil to flourish. M. pruriens will not survive a frost and needs sunlight and warm temperatures, explaining why it thrives in tropical climates.

Chemical Constituents

L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa, approximately 40 mg/g seed);

Alkaloids mucunine, mucunadine, mucuadinine, pruriendine and nicotine;

B-sitosterol, glutathione, lecithin oils, venolic and gallic acids;

Protein content of 27.9g per 100g; [1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[6]

Plant Part Used

Seed [1],[3]

Medicinal Uses

General

Parkinson’s disease

Neurochemical balance and neuroprotection

Antioxidant

Anti-diabetic

Male infertility; sexual health

Snake bite poisoning

 

Most Frequently Reported Uses

Parkinson’s disease

Neurochemical balance and neuroprotection

Dosage

Dosage Range

Powdered extract 150-600 mg. 

 

Most Common Dosage 

200mg of a standardized extract, once daily.

Standardization Dosage

Mucuna is standardized to 15% L-dopa.

Pharmacology

Pre-clinical

In laboratory animal studies, M. pruriens has been reported to possess anti-Parkinson and neuroprotective effects in Parkinson's disease.[7] M. pruriens contains L-dopa, and L-dopa is used to make dopamine, the neurochemical involved in behavior and cognition, voluntary movement, motivation and reward, inhibition of prolactin, sleep, mood, attention and learning. M. pruriens also has antioxidant properties, which can lead to neuroprotection.[8],[9] A laboratory study found that M. pruriens chelates divalent copper ions in a dose-dependent manner, with the copper chelating property probably one of the mechanisms by which M. pruriens exerts its neuroprotective effects.[10]

M. pruriens cotyledon powder (MPCP) has shown anti-Parkinson and neuroprotective effects in animal models of Parkinson's disease that is superior to synthetic levodopa. In the present study two different doses of MPCP protected both plasmid DNA and genomic DNA against levodopa and divalent copper-induced DNA strand scission and damage.

One of the traditional uses of M. pruriens is in diabetes and blood sugar imbalances. Laboratory animal studies support the use in blood sugar regulation through improving plasma glucose levels, helping prevent polyuria and helping decrease urinary albumin levels.[11],[12],[13] High levels of trace elements like manganese and zinc along with lecithin are found in the seeds and may be a possible link to the ability of M. pruriens to regulated blood sugar.[14] A study found that M. pruriens contains D-chiro-inositol, which also may explain the hypoglycemic effects of M. pruriens seeds.[15]

M. pruriens is also used traditionally for sexual health and as an aphrodisiac. Laboratory animal studies support this claim, with M. pruriens improving sexual desire.[16]

M. pruriens has been reported traditionally to be used in snake bites and is supported in these uses by laboratory studies. Several laboratory animal studies report that pretreatment of rats with M. pruriens seed extract helps protect them against snake venom poisoning, including vipers and cobras.[17],[18] Potential uses for M. pruriens in this area include the production of anti-mucuna antibodies that could be used in the antiserum therapy of various poisonous snake bites.

Clinical

A human study of 60 individuals with Parkinson’s disease found that administration of M. pruriens significantly reduced symptoms of the disease.[19] Another study in 8 individuals with Parkinson’s disease found that administration of 30grams M. pruriens (not standardized) decreased dyskinesias (involuntary movements) faster than the synthetic drug levodopa.[20]

Human studies also support the use of M. pruriens for sexual health and vitality. A study in infertile men found that treatment with M. pruriens significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation, elevated spermatogenesis, and improved sperm motility.[21] Treatment also recovered the levels of total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and vitamin A, C, and E and corrected fructose in seminal plasma of infertile men. The authors concluded that M. pruriens may play a role as a restorative and invigorating agent for infertile men.

Another study of 60 men in a fertility study suffering from psychological stress found that M. pruriens (5gm daily of seed powder) significantly decreased psychological stress and seminal plasma lipid peroxide levels along with improved sperm count and motility.[22] Treatment with M. pruriens also restored the levels of SOD (serum oxide dismutase), catalase, GSH (glutathione) and ascorbic acid in seminal plasma of infertile men. The authors concluded that M. pruriens may improve sexual health in infertile men under chronic stress by reactivating the anti-oxidant defense system, improving semen quality and by helping in the management of chronic stress.

A study of 75 healthy, fertile men compared to 75 men undergoing fertility screening treatment with M. pruriens significantly improved testosterone levels, luteinizing hormone (LH), dopamine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline levels in infertile men and reduced levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin. M. pruriens also improved sperm count and sperm motility in infertile men.[23]

Mechanisms of action in sexual health include antioxidant support, nutritional value and activity on the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis (including inhibition of prolactin secretion).[24],[25]

Interaction and Depletions

Interaction with other Herbs

No documentation

Interaction with Drugs

Based on laboratory studies, use only under the supervision of a doctor if taking anticoagulant medications, such as aspirin or warfarin (Coumadin).[30]

Based on pharmacology, use only under the supervision of a doctor if taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), as the l-dopa in M. pruriens may interact and cause high blood pressure.

Based on pharmacology, use only under the supervision of a doctor if taking hypoglycemic (blood sugar lowering) drugs including insulin, as M. pruriens may cause alterations in blood sugar levels.

Based on pharmacology, use only under the supervision of a doctor if taking medications for Parkinson's disease patients taking levodopa, dopamine, dopamine agonists, dopamine antagonists, anticholinergics and anti-Parkinson agents due to possible additive effects of M. pruriens.

Based on pharmacology, use with caution in individuals taking hormone replacement therapy including testosterone.

D-chiro inositol; tryptamine, alkylamines, steroids, flavonoids, coumarins, cardenolides

Precautions and Contraindications

Side effects

M. pruriens has been reported safe in recommended doses. Discontinue if allergy occurs.

Hairs on M. pruriens flowers and pods have been reported to cause severe pruritus (itching).[26]

Avoid in individuals with psychosis or schizophrenia, as M. pruriens has been reported to cause acute toxic psychosis.[27] 

Use with caution in individuals with an increased risk of prostate cancer or those having prostate disease.[29]

Pregnancy

Avoid in pregnant or breastfeeding as M. pruriens may inhibit prolactin secretion.[28]

Age limitation

No documentation

Adverse reaction

No documentation

Read More

  1) Botanical Info

  2) South Central America Herbs

References

  1. Ghosal S, Singh S, Bhattacharya SK. Alkaloids of Mucuna pruries chemistry and pharmacology. Planta Med. Feb1971;19(3):280-284.
  2. Panikkar KR, Majella VL, Pillai PM. Lecithin from Mucuna pruriens. Planta Med. Oct1987;53(5):503.
  3. Prakash D, Niranjan A, Tewari SK. Some nutritional properties of the seeds of three Mucuna species. Int J Food Sci Nutr. Jan2001;52(1):79-82.
  4. Rajyalakshmi P, Geervani P. Nutritive value of the foods cultivated and consumed by the tribals of south India. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. Jul1994;46(1):53-61.
  5. Donati D, Lampariello LR, Pagani R, Guerranti R, Cinci G, Marinello E. Antidiabetic oligocyclitols in seeds of Mucuna pruriens. Phytother Res. Dec2005;19(12):1057-1060.
  6. Vadivel V, Janardhanan K. Nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of velvet bean: an under-utilized food legume in south India. Int J Food Sci Nutr. Jul2000;51(4):279-287.
  7. Manyam BV, Dhanasekaran M, Hare TA. Neuroprotective effects of the antiparkinson drug Mucuna pruriens. Phytother Res. Sep2004;18(9):706-712.
  8. Dhanasekaran M, Tharakan B, Manyam BV. Antiparkinson drug--Mucuna pruriens shows antioxidant and metal chelating activity. Phytother Res. Jan2008;22(1):6-11.
  9. Tripathi YB, Upadhyay AK. Effect of the alcohol extract of the seeds of Mucuna pruriens on free radicals and oxidative stress in albino rats. Phytother Res. Sep2002;16(6):534-538.
  10. Tharakan B, Dhanasekaran M, Mize-Berge J, Manyam BV. Anti-Parkinson botanical Mucuna pruriens prevents levodopa induced plasmid and genomic DNA damage. Phytother Res. Dec2007;21(12):1124-1126.
  11. Rathi SS, Grover JK, Vats V. The effect of Momordica charantia and Mucuna pruriens in experimental diabetes and their effect on key metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Phytother Res. May 2002;16(3):236-243.
  12. Grover JK, Vats V, Rathi SS, Dawar R. Traditional Indian anti-diabetic plants attenuate progression of renal damage in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice.J Ethnopharmacol. Aug2001;76(3):233-238.
  13. Bhaskar A, Vidhya VG, Ramya M. Hypoglycemic effect of Mucuna pruriens seed extract on normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Fitoterapia. Dec2008;79(7-8):539-543.
  14. Akhtar MS, Qureshi AQ, Iqbal J. Antidiabetic evaluation of Mucuna pruriens, Linn seeds. J Pak Med Assoc. Jul1990;40(7):147-150.
  15. Donati D, Lampariello LR, Pagani R, Guerranti R, Cinci G, Marinello E. Antidiabetic oligocyclitols in seeds of Mucuna pruriens. Phytother Res. Dec2005;19(12):1057-1060.
  16. Suresh S, Prithiviraj E, Prakash S. Dose- and time-dependent effects of ethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens Linn. seed on sexual behaviour of normal male rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 21Apr2009;122(3):497-501.
  17. Aguiyi JC, Guerranti R, Pagani R, Marinello E. Blood chemistry of rats pretreated with Mucuna pruriens seed aqueous extract MP101UJ after Echis carinatus venom challenge. Phytother Res. Dec2001;15(8):712-714.
  18. Tan NH. The protective effect of Mucuna pruriens seeds against snake venom poisoning. J Ethnopharmacol. 22Jun2009;123(2):356-358.
  19. [No authors listed] An alternative medicine treatment for Parkinson's disease: results of a multicenter clinical trial. HP-200 in Parkinson's Disease Study Group. J Altern Complement Med. 1995 Fall;1(3):249-55.
  20. Katzenschlager R, Evans A, Manson A, et al. Mucuna pruriens in Parkinson's disease: a double blind clinical and pharmacological study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. Dec2004;75(12):1672-1677.
  21. Ahmad MK, Mahdi AA, Shukla KK, Islam N, Jaiswar SP, Ahmad S. Effect of Mucuna pruriens on semen profile and biochemical parameters in seminal plasma of infertile men. Fertil Steril. Sep2008;90(3):627-635.
  22. Shukla KK, Mahdi AA, Ahmad MK, et al. Mucuna pruriens Reduces Stress and Improves the Quality of Semen in Infertile Men. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 18Dec2007.[Epub ahead of print].
  23. Shukla KK, Mahdi AA, Ahmad MK,et al. Mucuna pruriens improves male fertility by its action on the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. Fertil Steril. 28Oct2008. [Epub ahead of print].
  24. Shukla KK, Mahdi AA, Ahmad MK,et al. Mucuna pruriens improves male fertility by its action on the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. Fertil Steril. 28Oct2008. [Epub ahead of print]
  25. Vaidya RA, Aloorkar SD, Sheth AR, Pandya SK. Activity of bromoergocryptine, Mucuna pruriens and L-dopa in the control of hyperprolactinaemia. Neurol India. Dec1978;26(4):179-182.
  26. Davidson S. The itch-producing agents histamine and cowhage activate separate populations of primate spinothalamic tract neurons. J Neurosci. 12Sep2007;27(37):10007-10014.
  27. Infante ME. Outbreak of acute toxic psychosis attributed to Mucuna pruriens. Lancet. 3Nov 1990;336(8723):1129.
  28. Vaidya RA, Aloorkar SD, Sheth AR, Pandya SK. Activity of bromoergocryptine, Mucuna pruriens and L-dopa in the control of hyperprolactinaemia. Neurol India. Dec1978;26(4):179-182.
  29. Shukla KK, Mahdi AA, Ahmad MK,et al. Mucuna pruriens improves male fertility by its action on the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. Fertil Steril. 28Oct2008. [Epub ahead of print]
  30. Aguiyi JC, Guerranti R, Pagani R, Marinello E. Blood chemistry of rats pretreated with Mucuna pruriens seed aqueous extract MP101UJ after Echis carinatus venom challenge. Phytother Res. 2001;15(8):712-714.