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Ficus hispida

Synonyms

Covellia hispida (Linn) Miquel, Ficus compressa S.S. Chang, Ficus heterostyla Merrill, Ficus hispida var. badiostrigosa Corner, Ficus hispida var. rubra Corner, Ficus letaqui H. Leveille & Vaniot , Ficus sambucixylon H. Leveille. [2]

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia Ara Bumbong, Ara Sungai, Ara Senigai, Ara Lempong, Seniah, Seniyah, Senil
Indonesia Luwing, Leluwing (Java); Bisoro (Sunda)
India Gobla, Katguleriya (Hindi); Kaduatti (Kannada); Kattatti, Erumanakku, Parakam (Malayalam); Kakodumbarika, Malayu (Sanskrit); Peyuatti, Conatti, Kattati (Tamil); Adaviatti (Telagu)
China Dui Ye Rong. [1] [2] [3] [4]

General Information

Description

Ficus hispida is a member of the Moraceae family. It is a small tree or shrub that is coarsely hairy and dioecious. It has four stipules decussating on leafless fruiting branchlets. They are ovate-lanceolate. The leaves are opposite, leafblade ovate, oblong or obovatye-oblong. They measure 10-25cm x 5-10cm, thickly papery. It has coarse gray hairs abaxially, and is rought with short thick hair adaxially. The base is rounded to cuneate, margins entire or bluntly toothed, apex acute to mucronate. Secondary veins are 6-9 on each side of the midvein. The petiole measure 1-4cm long with short thick hairs. The figs appears axillary on normal leafy shoots, or on leafless branchlets or branchlets from main branches. The figs appears solitary or paired; they are yellow or red when mature, top-shaped, measuring 1.2-3cm diameter with short scattered hairs, pedunculate; involucres bracts are present and lateral bracts are sometimes present. The male flowers are numerous near the apical pore; calyx lobes 3, thinly membranous; stamen single. The gall flowers are without calyx, style subapical, short and thick. The female flowers are also without calyx, the style is lateral and with hairs. [2]

Plant Part Used

Root, bark or stem-leaf. [1] [4]

Chemical Constituents

Ficustriol; O-methyltylophorinidine

Traditional Used:

In Traditional Chinese medicine F. hispida is believed to clear off wind and heat, moves qi and dissipate stasis. It is also able to disperse accumulation of and transforms phlegm, fortifies spleen and eliminates dampness. In Ayurveda the bark is considered emetic and laxative while the fruit is bitter, refrigerant, astringent, acrid, antidysenteric, anti-inflammatory, depurative, vulnerary, haemostatic and galactagogue.

Gastrointestinal diseases

To the Malays the latex is sometimes given to treat diarrhea. The bark is also used to treat dysentery and diarrhea. The decoction of the bark is used to treat stomachache in children. Ayurvedic physicians highly recommend the fig for use in the treatment of jaundice.

Obtstetrics and gynaecological diseases

In traditional Chinese Medicine, the plant has been recommended for use in vaginal discharge and in stopping breast milk. In India the fruits on the contrary is given as a galactagogue. In Malay Medicine the decoction of the leaves is given to aid childbirth. 

Other diseases

Both the Malays and the Chinese make use of this plant to treat fever. A decoction of the leaves is used to treat fever in the old Malay community. Other uses of the plant include common cold, conjunctivitis, bronchitis and painful swelling following injuries. It has also been advocated for use in treatment of haemorrhoids, epistaxis, and bleeding from gastro-intestinal tract. The fruit and root had been used to treat skin problems including leucoderma and vitiligo. [1] [3] [4] [5]

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology

Hepatoprotective activity

The leaf extract of F. hispida was found to have the ability to reverse damage to the liver done by paracetamol and azothioprine. The elevated liver damaged biomarkers (SGOT, SGPT, Bilirubin and alkaline phosphatade were lowered significantly after treatment with the leaf extract. From observations of its effects in the case of azothioprine induced liver damage, it was concluded that the mechanism probably was through upholding the thiol homeostasis, curtling membrane effects and perpetuation of adenine nucleotide status. [6] [7]

Antidiarrhoeal activity

Methanol leaf extract of F. hispida showed antidiarrhoeal activity against castor-oil induced diaerrhoea and PGE(2)-induced enteropooling in rats. [8]

Anticancer activity

A pehnanthroindolizidine alkaloid isolated from the CHCl3 extract of the leaves and twigs of F. hispida was found to be active against small panel of human cancer cells. This compound had been characterized and named O-methylophorinidine.[9]

Anticoagulate activity

A suphydryl plant protease in the latex of F. hispida was found to have the ability to increase clotting time and Erythrocyte sedimentation rate while at the same time decrease haemoglobin content, RBC count and WBC count. It also has a mild anti-inflammatory activity. [10]

Toxicities

No documentation

Teratogenic effects

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

References

1. Zhou J. Encyclopedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine Volume 5 Springer-Verlag. Berlin. pg. 446.
2. Flora of China. Available from http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200006361. Accessed on 19th February 2013.
3. Burkill IH. A Dictionary of Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 1966.
4. Warrier PK, Nambiar VPK, Ramankutty C. Indian Medicinal Plants: A Compendium of 500 species, Volume 3, Orient Longman, Hyderbad 1995 pg. 27
5. Khare CP. Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary, Springer, Berlin 2007 pg. 266 – 267
6. Mandal SC, Saraswathi B, Kumar CK, Mohana Lakshmi S, Maiti BC. Protective effect of leaf extract of Ficus hispida Linn. Against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Phytother Res. 2000 Sep;14(6):457-9.
7. Shanmugarajan TS, Devaki T. Hepatic perturbations provoked by azathioprine: a paradigm to rationalize the cytoprotective potential of Ficus hispida Linn. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2009 Feb;19(2):129-34.
8. Mandal SC, Ashok Kumar CK. Studies on anti-diarrhoeal activity of Ficus hispida. Leaf extract in rats. Fitoterapia. 2002 Dec;73(7-8):663-7.
9. Peraza-Sánchez SR, Chai HB, Shin YG, Santisuk T, Reutrakul V, Farnsworth NR, Cordell GA, Pezzuto JM, Kinghorn AD. Constituents of the leaves and twigs of Ficus hispida. Planta Med. 2002 Feb;68(2):186-8.
10. Chetia D, Nath LK, Dutta SK. Pharmacological properties of a protease from ficus hispiad linn. Anc Sci Life. 2001 Oct;21(2):99-110.

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