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Wedelia biflora


Melanthera biflora (Linn) Wild. Wollastonia biflora (Linn.) DC, Verbesina biflora Linn.

Vernacular Names:


Serunai laut




Sunflower daisy, Beach sunflower, Beach daisy, Beach


Kovekove, Sekawa. [1] [2]

General Information


Wedelia biflora is a member of the Asteraceae family. It is a strangling perennial herb which can reach up to 2 m high. The stem is quadragulated andc scabrous. The leaves are ovate, shortly tapering at base, serrate, acuminate and measures 2 – 10 x 1 – 4 cm, scabrous on both surfaces. The flrowers are in head of 8 – 10 mm diameter. Each head has an outer whorl of female ray florets and a central region of hermaphrodite disk florets. Anthers are fused together but the filaments are free. The style and stigmas are yellow. The fruits are in a dense head. [7]

Plant Part Used


Chemical Constituents

Veratrylidene hydrazine, quercetin derivatives, stigmasterol, grandifloric acid. [1]

Traditional Used:

W. biflora is a common herb found along beaches in the tropical belt. It is medicinal to communities along coastal regions. In Malaysia the shoots are edible as vegetable or in Langkawi eaten raw with hot chilli and prawn paste dips (sambal belacan). [2]

Inflammatory Diseases

The leaves are used in poultice over ulcers, sores, ringworms and other fungal infections. In the Fiji islands the leaves and stems are used in the treatment of appendicitis and acne vulgaris. Massage oil made with leaves soaked in coconut oil is used to treat sprains and bruised limbs. The Tongan sometimes made use of the leaves to treat tetanus. [1] [2] [3]

Gastrointestinal Diseases

Decoction of the leaves is given for bacillary dysentery, infective hepatitis and haemorrhoids. The extracted juice of the leaf buds are used in the treatment of stomachache and nausea. [3] [6]

Other uses

The leaf decoction is considered a vulnerary and antiscabious while juice of the leaves mixed with cow’s milk is a postpartum tonic in India. In Malaysia the whole plant is used in the treatment of hypertension. The Fijian made used of the decoction of the leaves in their treatment of cycstitis, and orchitis, and a compound decoction in the treatment of muscular spasm and convulsions. The bark mixed with coconut milk and root of a ficus its given in the treatment of fish poisoning. In East Africa the leaves are used for treating bronchitis and for easing respiration. [1] [2] [3] [6]

Pre-Clinical Data


No documentation.


It has been recorded that Wedelia biflora contains a kaurene aminoglycoside biofloratoxin. This compound has hepatotoxic effects causing acute coagulation necrosis of periacinar hepatocytes with rapid death after hepatoencephalopathy in some cases. [4] [5]

Teratogenic effects

No documentation.

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation.

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation.

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

The plant is used by people in the South Pacific to ease difficult labour. This may indicate the presence of a myometrial stimulant. Pregnant women should not consume the plant for fear of a probable abortifacient activity.

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation.


No documentation.

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation.


Interactions with drugs

No documentation.

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation.



No documentation.

Case Reports

No documentation.


1. Khare CP. Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary, Springer. Berlin. 2007. pg. 716
2. Zakaria M, Mohamed MA. Traditional Malay Medicinal Plants, ITBM. Kuala Lumpur. 2010. pg. 53
3. Ash J, Cambie RC. Fijian Medicinal Plants, CSIRO. Australia. 1994 pg. 2228 []
4. JK Macleod, KL Gaul and PB Oelrichs. Bifloratoxin, a Toxic Aminoglycoside of Carboxyatractyligenin from Melanthera biflora. Australian Journal of Chemistry .43(9) 1533 – 1539
5. Important Poisonous Plants of Australia Available from [] Accessed 26th March 2013
6. Kokwaro JO. Medicinal Plants of East Africa. University of Nairobi Press. Nairobi. 2009 pg. 93
7. Factsheet – Melanthera biflora. Available from [] Accessed 26th March 2013


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