image
Conservation

Compilation of herbal plants (description, geographical distribution, taxonomy, line drawings), biodiversity and herbarium.

Read More
image
Research & Publication

Description of herbal and T&CM research, searchable publication and process from medicinal plant discovery to clinical trial in producing a high-quality registered herbal drug.

Read More
 
Traditional & Complementary Medicine (T&CM)

 

Definition and description of therapies, policy, training and education, research in the practise of (T&CM) and integrated medicine system.           

Read More

 

News Update

Announcement & Advertisement

Forthcoming Events

Annual Congress on Traditional Medicine

From Wed, 12. May 2021 Until Thu, 13. May 2021

5th International Conference on Medical and Health Informatics (ICMHI 2021

From Fri, 14. May 2021 Until Sun, 16. May 2021

International Conference on Traditional Medicine and Phytochemistry 2021

From Mon, 12. July 2021 Until Wed, 14. July 2021

Asian Symposium on Medicinal Plants and Spices XVII (2020)

From Tue, 17. August 2021 Until Thu, 19. August 2021

Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers.

Synonyms

Adambea glabra Lam.Adambea hirsuta Lam.Lagerstroemia augusta Wall. [Invalid]Lagerstroemia flos-reginae Retz.Lagerstroemia hirsuta (Lam.) Willd.Lagerstroemia macrocarpa Wall. [Invalid], Lagerstroemia major Retz., Lagerstroemia munchausia Willd.Lagerstroemia plicifolia Stokes, Lagerstroemia reginae Roxb.Munchausia speciosa L.Murtughas hirsuta (Lam.) Kuntze [1]

Vernacular Names

Malaysia Bungor raya (Peninsular); bongor biru (Malay, Sarawak); tibabah (Dusun Banggi, Sabah) [34]
English Pride of India, queen of flowers [34]
Indonesia Bungur (General); bungur tekuyung (Palembang, Sumatra); ketangi (Javanese) [34]
Thailand Chuang-muu, tabaek dam (Central); inthanin nam (Central, Peninsular) [34]
Philippines Banaba (Filipino) [34]
Myanmar Gawkng-uchyamang [34]
Vietnam B[awf]ng l[aw]ng n[uw][ows]c [34]

General Information

Description

Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. is a member of the Lythraceae family. It is a medium to large-sized  evergreen tree that can grow up to 25 m high. The leaves are opposite, leathery, oblong to ovate in shape, glaborus with short petiole, and measures 10-20 cm x 5-7.5 cm. The flowers are in large terminal panicle, showy and regular in shape, varying from pink to purple in colour, and measure 5.0-7.5 cm wide. The calyx is in green ribbed tube with 6 leathery sepal lobes and 6 lilac purple petals with wavy margins up to 3.5 cm long, attached between the sepals by short claws. The stamens are numerous, with purple filaments and golden yellow anthers. The pistil is simple with a long purple style of up to 5 cm long, a dark green stigma and a superior ovary. The fruit is hard woody, subglobose, measures about 2.5 cm long. The seeds are winged. [2] [3]

Plant Part Used

Roots, bark, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds [4] [5] [16]

Chemical Constituents

Lagertannin, colosolic acid; maslinic acid; 3b,23-dihydroxy-1-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid; ellagitannins, lagerstroemin, flosin B and reginin A, flosin A, valoneaic acid dilactone, ellagic acid; 31-norlargerenol acetate; 24-methylenecycloartanol acetate; largerenol acetate, tinotufolins C and D, lutein, phytol, sitosterol and sitosterol acetate; lagerstroemin, flosin B, stachyurin, casuarinin, casuariin, epipunicacortein A, and 2, 3-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-alpha/beta-D-glucose, 3-O-methyl-ellagic acid 4'-sulfate, ellagic acid, 3-O-methylellagic acid, 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid, 3,4,3'-tri-O-methylellagic acid, and 3,4,8,9,10-pentahydroxydibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one, corosolic acid, gallic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3-O-methylprotocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, kaempferol, quercetin, and isoquercitrin, oleanolic acid, arjunolic acid, asiatic acid, maslinic acid, corosolic acid and 23-hydroxyursolic acid; orobol 7-O-d-glucoside. [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]

Traditional Uses

L. speciosa bark are purgative [4]. Decoction of the bark is used for gastrointestinal tract disturbance, stomachache and haematuria. The bark is included in a compound decoction for treating depression [5].

The leaves are purgative [4]. Poultice of the pounded leaves is a remedy for malaria, headache and cracked heels when applied over the respective lesions [5]. The leaves are also considered a diuretic. Decoction or infusion of the leaves is used for bladder and kidney inflammation, dysuria and other urinary dysfunctions. Decoction of the leaves is given for fever. The Filipinos in particular advocate the use of dried old leaves or dried fruits as the best remedy as opposed to young leaves [16].

The flowers are purgative. [16]

The seeds are narcotic. [4]

The roots of L. speciosa isconsidered as astringent, stimulant and febrifuge [4].  Decoction of the roots is used to treat diarrhoea and aphthous ulcers [16]. Decoction of the root is also used in the treatment of jaundice. The root form part of pot herb for women after delivery [5].

Decoction of the mature leaves and ripe fruit is traditionally used to treat diabetes while decoction of fresh leaves and fruits is given to treat diabetes mellitus. [5] In Southeast Asia L. speciosa has been used to treat diabetes mellitus. [16]

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Antimicrobial activity

Antibacterial activity

Certain factions of petroleum ether extracts of L. speciosa seeds showed high antagonistic activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. [12]

Anitviral activity

Orobol 7-O-d-glucoside (O7G) isolated from L. speciosa showed antiviral activity when tested in Hela cells using cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction method. The results showed that it possessed a broad spectrum antiviral activity against Human Rhinovirus (HRV) species A (HRV1B, HRV2, HRV15 and HRV40) and specvies B (HRV3, HRV6 and HRV14) as well as pleconaril-resistant virus (HRV5) with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 0.58-8.80 μg/mL and the 50% cytotoxicity concentration CC50 of O7G was more than 100 μg/mL. [13]

Osteoblast differentiation activity

Corosolic acid isolated from L. speciosa leaves showed its ability to stimulate the differentiation of osteoblast in mouse. This process was due to its ability to induce NF-kappaB and MAP kinase activity at an early stage of osteoblast differentiation and increase the activity of the transcription factor AP-1 during late-stage osteoblast differentiation. [14] 

Antinephrotoxicity activity

Ethyl acetate extract of L. speciosa leaves (50 and 250 mg/kg) administered to cisplatin-induced acute renal injury in Balb/C mice reduced the elevations of urea and creatinine concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. It also prevented the decline in renal antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, gluthathione peroxidase, and reduced gluthathione). [15]

Anti-inflammatory activity

Ethyl acetate and ethanol extract of L. speciosa leaves showed anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced acute inflammation and formalin-induced (chronic) paw edema models.  Only ethyl acetate extract has significantly reduced the paw edema in a dose-dependent manner and described as the most active anti-inflammatory activity compared to ethanol extract which could be due to its free radical scavenging activity. [20]

Antioxidant activity

Ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and water extract of L. speciosa leaves showed antioxidant activity through superoxide and hydroxyl ion scavenging activity and by measuring its lipid peroxidation. The result showed that ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts had greater antioxidant activity than methanol and water extracts. [20]

Inhibition of NF-kappaB activity

In a screening study of Bangladeshi medicinal plants, low doses of L. speciosa extracts proved to inhibit the interactions between nuclear factors and target DNA elements mimicking sequences recognized by the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB).[21]

Aqueous extracts of L. speciosa leaves was found to completely blocked the activation of NF-kappaB by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in rat cardiomyocyte H9c2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The NF-kappaB's activation was examined using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). [22] 

Antiobesity and lipid metabolism

Hot-water extract of L. speciosa leaves (5 %) administered orally to genetically diabetic Type II and KK-Ay female mice for duration of 12 weeks reduced the diabetic signssuch as significantly reduced their body weight gain and parametrial adipose tissue weight. The HbA1c level was also suppressed at the end of the experiment while the serum lipid was not affected. The total hepatic lipid content was significantly decreased (up to 65% of control levels) due to a reduction in the triglyceride accumulation. [23]

A pentacyclic triterpene namely corosolic acid isolated from L. speciosa leaves administered orally to hypercholesterolemia KK-Ay mice for duration of 10 weeks significantly ( p < 0.05) reduced  the mean blood cholesterol level by 32% and the liver cholesterol content by 46% compared to those without corosolic acid intake. The result showed that corosolic acid may have some direct effect on the cholesterol absorption process in the small intestine and may inhibit the activity of cholesterol acyltransferase in the small intestine. [24]

Antidiabetic activity

Hot-water extract of L. speciosa leaves (5%) administered orally to hereditary diabetic mice (Type II, KK-AY/Ta Jcl) for duration of 5 weeks decreased the serum insulin level, amount of urinary excreted glucose, plasma total cholesterol and the blood plasma glucose level that showed increment by control diet. [25]

Hot-water extract of L. speciosa showed to be effective in stimulating glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with an induction time and inhibiting adipocyte differentiation activity at dose-dependent manner similar to insulin. It significantly (p < 0.01) reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 (PPARgamma2) mRNA and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) protein in cells induced from preadipocytes with insulin plus 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and dexamethasone (IS-IBMX-DEX). [26]

Ellagitannins (lagerstroemin, flosin, reginin A) isolated from the aqueous fraction of acetone extract of L. speciosa leaves showed glucose uptake capability by increasing the hexose uptake rate to the level higher than half of that induced by insulin. [27]

Valoneaic acid isolated from the L. speciosa leaves demonstrated   antidiabetic activity by possessing a potent α-amylase inhibition activity dependent on the valoneaic acid contents. [28]

Seven ellagitannins (lagerstroemin, flosin B, stachyurin, casuarinin, casuariin, epipunicacortein A, and 2, 3-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-alpha/beta-D-glucose) showed strong activities in stimulating insulin-like glucose uptake and inhibiting adipocyte differentiations in 3T3-L1 cells. It was that found the ellagic acid and its derivatives showed an inhibitory effect on glucose transport assay. [29]

Corosolic acid, an active component of L. speciosa leaves administered to diabetic Wistar rats decreased its blood glucose. It was found that corosolic acid has effects on the gluconeogenesis in rat liver in manners of increasing the production of Fructose-2,6-biphosphate by lowering the cAMP level and inhibiting protein kinase activity in hepatocytes. It was found that it also increase the glucokinase activity without affecting glucose-6-phosphatase activity [31]. Another study found that corosolic acid reduced hydrolysis of sucrone in the small intestine of adult male ddY mice thus further added another mechanism of its antidiabetic activity [32]. Corosolic acid isolated from ethyl acetate extract of L. speciosa leaves also showed significant inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase with IC50 was 3.53 μg/mL [33]

Toxicities

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

A randomized clinical trial has been done on the effects of L. speciosa standardized to 1% corosolic acid on the blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. The trial was done over 2 weeks using two types of dosage forms i.e soft gel and dry-powder hard gelatine capsule. They found a significant blood glucose level reduction at a daily dose of 32 mg. and 48 mg and the softgel preparation showed a larger decrease in blood glucose level indicating a higher bioavailability in the softgel preparation. [17]

A study on the effects of corosolic acid on postchallange plasma glucose levels found that corosolic acid has a lowering effect on postchallange plasma glucose levels in vivo in humans. [30]

Adverse Effects in Human:

In the recommended dosages (8-48 mg/day) no side effects had been reported. However, at higer doses there may appear symptoms associated with lowered blood glucose levels such as headache, dizziness, fatigue, could be expected. [18]

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

Read more

Botanical Information

References

1. The Plant List. Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013. [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2014 Sept 10]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2353907

2. McMinn H, Maino E, Shepherd HW. An Illustrated Manual of Pacific Coast Trees. Berkerly: University of Calfornia Press; 1980. p. 297.

3. Castro IR. A Guide to Families of Common Flowering Plants in the Philippines. Quezon City: The University of the Philippines Press; 2006. p. 106.

4. Vardhana R. Direct Uses of Medicinal Plants and Their Identification.  New Delhi: Sarup & Sons; 2008. p. 203.

5. Ong HC. Tumbuhan Liar. Khasiat Ubatan & Kegunaan Lain. Kuala Lumpur: Utusan Publications & Distributors Sdn. Bhd.; 2008. p. 65.

6. Takahashi M, Osawa K, Ueda J, Yamamoto F, Tsai CT. The components of the plants of Lagerstroemia genus. III. On the structure of the new tannin "lagertannin" from the leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. Author's transl: Yakugaku Zasshi. Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan. 1976;96(8):984-7.

7. Murakami C, Myoga K, Kasai R, Ohtani K, Kurokawa T, Ishibashi S, Dayrit F, Padolina WG, Yamasaki K. Screening of plant constituents for effect on glucose transport activity in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells. Chem Pharm Bull. 1993;41(12):2129-31.

8. Hayashi T, Maruyama H, Kasai R, Hattori K, Takasuga S, Hazeki O, Yamasaki K, Tanaka T. Ellagitannins from Lagerstroemia speciosa as activators of glucose transport in fat cells. Planta Med. 2002 Feb;68(2):173-5.

9. Ragasa CY, Ngo HT, Rideout JA. Terpenoids and sterols from Lagerstroemia speciosa. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2005;7(1):7-12.

10. Bai N, He K, Roller M, et al. Active compounds from Lagerstroemia speciosa, insulin-like glucose uptake-stimulatory/inhibitory and adipocyte differentiation-inhibitory activities in 3T3-L1 cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56(24):11668-74.

11. Hou W, Li Y, Zhang Q, et al. Triterpene acids isolated from Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves as alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. Phytother Res. 2009;23(5):614-8.

12. Sinhababu A, Basak B, Laskar S, Chakrabarty D, Sen SK. Effect of different fractions of petroleum ether (60-80 degrees) extract of the seeds of Lagerstroemia speciosa (Linn. ex Murray) Pers. on some microorganisms. Hindustan Antibiot Bull. 1994;36(1-2):39-45.

13. Choi HJ, Bae EY, Song JH, Baek SH, Kwon DH. Inhibitory effects of orobol 7-O-D-glucoside from banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa  L.) on human rhinoviruses replication. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2010;51(1):1-5.

14. Shim KS, Lee SU, Ryu SY, Min YK, Kim SH. Corosolic acid stimulates osteoblast differentiation by activating transcription factors and MAP kinases. Phytother Res. 2009;23(12):1754-8.

15. Priya TT, Sabu MC, Jolly CI. Amelioration of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in mice by an ethyl acetate extract of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L). J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;18(4):289-98

16. Banaba / Lagerstroemia speciosa: Philippines Medicinal Plants / Alternative Medicine in the Philippines [homepage on Internet] [cted 2010 Oct 6]. Available fromhttp://www.stuartxchange.com/Banaba.html 

17. Judy WV, Hari SP, Stogsdill WW, Judy NS, Naguib YM, Passwater R. Antidiabetic Activity of a Standardized extract (Glucosol) from Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves in Type II diabetics. A dose-dependence study. J. Ethnopharmacol 2003; 87(1):115-117

18. Talbott SM, Hughes K. The Health Professional's Guide to Dietary Supplements. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007.  p. 409-410.

19. Shim KS, Lee SU, Ryu SY, Min YK, Kim SH. Corosolic acid stimulates osteoblast differentiation by activating transcription factors and MAP kinases. Phytother Res. 2009;23(12):1754-8.

20. Priya TT, Sabu MC, Jolly CI. Free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory properties of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L). Inflammopharmacology. 2008;16(4):182-7.

21. Lampronti I, Khan MT, Bianchi N, et al. Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts inhibiting molecular interactions between nuclear factors and target DNA sequences mimicking NF-kappaB binding sites. Med Chem. 2005 Jul;1(4):327-33.

22. Ichikawa H, Yagi H, Tanaka T, Cyong JC, Masaki T. Lagerstroemia speciosa extract inhibit TNF-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappaB in rat cardiomyocyte H9c2 cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Mar 2;128(1):254-6. Epub 2010 Jan 4.

23. Suzuki Y, Unno T, Ushitani M, Hayashi K, Kakuda T. Antiobesity activity of extracts from Lagerstroemia speciosa L. leaves on female KK-Ay mice. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1999 Dec;45(6):791-5.

24. Takagi S, Miura T, Ishihara E, Ishida T, Chinzei Y. Effect of corosolic acid on dietary hypercholesterolemia and hepatic steatosis in KK-Ay diabetic mice. Biomed Res. 2010;31(4):213-8.

25. Kakuda T, Sakane I, Takihara T, Ozaki Y, Takeuchi H, Kuroyanagi M. Hypoglycemic effect of extracts from Lagerstroemia speciosa L. leaves in genetically diabetic KK-AY mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1996;60(2):204-8.

26. Liu F, Kim J, Li Y, Liu X, Li J, Chen X. An extract of Lagerstroemia speciosa L. has insulin-like glucose uptake-stimulatory and adipocyte differentiation-inhibitory activities in 3T3-L1 cells. J Nutr. 2001;131(9):2242-7.

27. Hayashi T, Maruyama H, Kasai R, et al. Ellagitannins from Lagerstroemia speciosa as activators of glucose transport in fat cells. Planta Med. 2002;68(2):173-5.

28. Hosoyama H, Sugimoto A, Suzuki Y, Sakane I, Kakuda T. Isolation and quantitative analysis of the alpha-amylase inhibitor in Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (Banaba). Author's transl:  Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan. 2003;123(7):599-605.

29. Bai N, He K, Roller M, et al. Active compounds from Lagerstroemia speciosa, insulin-like glucose uptake-stimulatory/inhibitory and adipocyte differentiation-inhibitory activities in 3T3-L1 cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56(24):11668-74.

30. Fukushima M, Matsuyama F, Ueda N, Egawa K, Takemoto J, Kajimoto Y et al. Effect of corosolic acid on postchallenge plasma glucose levels. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2006;73(2):174-7.

31. Yamada K, Hosokawa M, Fujimoto S, et al. Effect of corosolic acid on gluconeogenesis in rat liver. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008;80(1):48-55.

32. Takagi S, Miura T, Ishibashi C, et al. Effect of corosolic acid on the hydrolysis of disaccharides. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2008;54(3):266-8.

33. Hou W, Li Y, Zhang Q, et al. Triterpene acids isolated from Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves as alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. Phytother Res. 2009;23(5):614-8.

34. Sosef MSM, Hong LT, Prawirohatmodjo, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 5(3): Timber trees: Lesser-known timbers. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers; 1998. p. 323-324.

Explore Further

Consumer Data

Consumer data including medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs and interactions and depletions.                                    

Read More
Professional Data

Professional data organized into medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs, T&CM herbs, formulas, health conditions, interactions and depletions.

Read More
International Data

We offer International linkages to provide extensive content pertaining to many facets of T&CM as well as Integrated Medicine. Please register for access.    

Read More