Cosmetic Sciences in Ancient Persia


Arman Zargaran, Abdolali Mohagheghzadeh, Saeed Daneshamouz, Younes Ghasemi and Niloofar Rajabli


Traditional & Complementary Medicine Exhibition 2007 (TCME 2007), Putra World Trade Centre (PWTC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia




cosmetic, Persia, materia medica


Special geographical situation of Iran has resulted in destroying most of Iranian relics and ancient opuses because of its neighbors attack like Alexander. For this reason most of ancient Persian sciences has been forgotten. In this research we tried to study few remaining signs and relics from ancient period and tried to presenting a framework for the cosmetic science in ancient Persia. For doing this research, first we visited the remaining ancient relics and museums in Khuzestan province including Susa and Chaghazanbil, Fars province like Persepolis, Pasargadae, Naghsh-e-Rostam and Kazeroon historical places, Tehran, Hamadan and Gilan museums. The style of hair and beard and cosmetic tools, support the hypothesis of existence of cosmetic science in the ancient Persia. Next, we reviewed books and ancient opuses related to Persian history like Zoroaster Gathas, Vandidad, Bondhesh, Shahname, opuses of Herodotus, Xenophon, Plutarco and publications of M. Mole and Najmabadi. Accordingly, we encountered with a lot numbers of documents, so we categorized them and present a sketch for ancient Persian cosmetic sciences including 1) signs, like hair and beard style, 2) Tools e.g.: cosmetic mortars, hair clips, scent bottles, combs and some fictile, 3) plant materials for hair styling and conditioning like Tragacanth, Aloe and Sedr, oils like olive oil and coconut oil, hair coloring agents like Henna, Chamomilla and Zaj, and 4) cosmetic methods. The results of this research provide us with the existence of advanced form of cosmetic science in the ancient Persia even belong to the prehistoric periods that is valuable for the developing of cosmetic and history of science Results of this paper are useful and valuable for cosmetic sciences and science history.