Cissus quadrangularis  Plant Extract Enhances The Development Cortical Bone and Trabeculae in The Fetal Femur    


Muddanna S Rao, Bhagath Kumar P, Narayana Swamy VB and Gopalan Kutty N


Traditional & Complementary Medicine Exhibition 2007 (TCME 2007), Putra World Trade Centre (PWTC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia




Cissus quadrangularis, phytoestrogen, bone trabecular, ayurveda


Traditional recipes for treatment of physical and mental ailments exist in all major ancient civilizations of the world. One such recipe popular is the Indian subcontinent involves the use of the extract ofCissus quadrangularisplant.C. quadrangularisis a shrub, with thick and fleshy quadrangular stem. It is an edible plant found in India, Sri Lanka, Malaya, Java and West Africa. Stem and root extract of this plant possess antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Various organic macromolecules ranging from terpenoids to large stilbene derivatives have been isolated from this plant. Stem extract contains a high percentage of calcium ions and phosphorus. The plant has been documented in Ayurveda, an alternative system of medicine in India, for its medicinal uses in gout, syphilis, venereal diseases, piles, leucorrhoea. The roots and stem are most useful for healing of fracture of the bones. Phytoestrogenic steroids have been isolated fromC. quadrangularisplant, has been shown to influence early regeneration and quick mineralization of bone fracture healing process. The question whether theplant C. quadrangularis, which is proved to contain phyto-estrogens will increase the bone mass during fetal growth is not addressed. Accordingly the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of alcoholic extract ofC. quadrangularison the intrauterine growth of trabeculae in the long bones in rats. Pregnant rats were administered with Ethanol extract ofC. quadrangularis(CQ), orally, at the dose of 750 mg/kg body weight from 9th day of gestation till delivery. Femur bone of the newborn pups were collected, decalcified and processed for paraffin sectioning. Thickness of cortical bone at mid shaft level, thickness of individual trabeculae were measured using a calibrated ocular micrometer. The density of the trabecular bone was measured using Scion image programme. Results showed a significantly increased thickness of the cortical bone at mid shaft level compared to control rats. The thickness of individual trabecula was increased significantly. Further scion image analysis revealed an increased trabecular bone density in the rats treated with plant extract compared to control rats. The present study demonstrates enhanced bone formation during fetal growth by CQ, which may be related to rich content of calcium, phosphorus and phytoestrogenic property of the plant.