Compilation of herbal plants (description, geographical distribution, taxonomy, line drawings), biodiversity and herbarium.

Read More
Research & Publication

Description of herbal and T&CM research, searchable publication and process from medicinal plant discovery to clinical trial in producing a high-quality registered herbal drug.

Read More
Traditional & Complementary Medicine (T&CM)


Definition and description of therapies, policy, training and education, research in the practise of (T&CM) and integrated medicine system.           

Read More


News Update

Announcement & Advertisement

Forthcoming Events

International Congress on Drug Delivery

From Mon, 5. October 2020 Until Tue, 6. October 2020

Global Pharmaceutical and Pharma Industry Conference

From Mon, 12. October 2020 Until Tue, 13. October 2020

14th International Conference on Pharmaceutics and Drug Safety

From Wed, 21. October 2020 Until Thu, 22. October 2020

Seminar Tumbuhan Ubatan, Beraroma dan Pegetahuan Tradisi 2020

From Tue, 10. November 2020 Until Wed, 11. November 2020

2nd International Conference on Natural Products & Traditional Medicine

From Mon, 16. November 2020 Until Tue, 17. November 2020

Ficus benghalensis L.

Ficus benghalensis L.




Ficus indica L., Ficus lasiophylla Link, Ficus banyana Oken.

Vernacular Names

Malaysia Banyan (General), ara tandok, bohdi (Peninsular)
English Banyan tree, Indian banyan
Indonesia Beringin India
Burma (Myanmar) Pyi-nyaung
Thailand Krang, ni khrot (Central)
Vietnam Da l[as] tr[of]n

Geographical Distributions

This plant is originally from India and Pakistan but widely planted in Indo-China, Thailand and naturalised in the Malesian region.


This is a deciduous to evergreen, wide spreading banyan up to 20(-25) m tall. It is supported with copious aerial roots. The bark surface is smooth and grey.

The leaves are arranged spirally, egg-shaped or broadly egg-shaped to elliptical size 10-30 cm x 7-20 cm. The base is heart-shaped. The apex is blunt to round, margin entire with 5-7 pairs of lateral veins. It is lately hairy below. The stipules are 1.5-2.5 cm long.

The male flowers are many and short stalked, with 2-3 segments of floral leaf and 1 stamen. The female flowers are sessile, with 3-4 segments of floral leaf.

The figs are paired and sessile, spherical to depressed spherical size 15-25 mm in diametre, lately hairy with orange to red or pinkish-red when ripe.

Ecology / Cultivation

F. benghalensis occurs in evergreen to deciduous lowland forest.

Line Drawing / Photograph


Read More

  1) Safety


  1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 12(1): Medicinal and poisonous plants 1.

Explore Further

Consumer Data

Consumer data including medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs and interactions and depletions.                                    

Read More
Professional Data

Professional data organized into medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs, T&CM herbs, formulas, health conditions, interactions and depletions.

Read More
International Data

We offer International linkages to provide extensive content pertaining to many facets of T&CM as well as Integrated Medicine. Please register for access.    

Read More