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Ficus benghalensis L.

Ficus benghalensis L.




Ficus indica L., Ficus lasiophylla Link, Ficus banyana Oken.

Vernacular Names

Malaysia Banyan (General), ara tandok, bohdi (Peninsular)
English Banyan tree, Indian banyan
Indonesia Beringin India
Burma (Myanmar) Pyi-nyaung
Thailand Krang, ni khrot (Central)
Vietnam Da l[as] tr[of]n

Geographical Distributions

This plant is originally from India and Pakistan but widely planted in Indo-China, Thailand and naturalised in the Malesian region.


This is a deciduous to evergreen, wide spreading banyan up to 20(-25) m tall. It is supported with copious aerial roots. The bark surface is smooth and grey.

The leaves are arranged spirally, egg-shaped or broadly egg-shaped to elliptical size 10-30 cm x 7-20 cm. The base is heart-shaped. The apex is blunt to round, margin entire with 5-7 pairs of lateral veins. It is lately hairy below. The stipules are 1.5-2.5 cm long.

The male flowers are many and short stalked, with 2-3 segments of floral leaf and 1 stamen. The female flowers are sessile, with 3-4 segments of floral leaf.

The figs are paired and sessile, spherical to depressed spherical size 15-25 mm in diametre, lately hairy with orange to red or pinkish-red when ripe.

Ecology / Cultivation

F. benghalensis occurs in evergreen to deciduous lowland forest.

Line Drawing / Photograph


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  1) Safety


  1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 12(1): Medicinal and poisonous plants 1.

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