Compilation of herbal plants (description, geographical distribution, taxonomy, line drawings), biodiversity and herbarium.

Read More
Research & Publication

Description of herbal and T&CM research, searchable publication and process from medicinal plant discovery to clinical trial in producing a high-quality registered herbal drug.

Read More
Traditional & Complementary Medicine (T&CM)


Definition and description of therapies, policy, training and education, research in the practise of (T&CM) and integrated medicine system.           

Read More


News Update

Announcement & Advertisement

Forthcoming Events

4th International Conference on Natural Products and Medicinal Plants Research

From Fri, 25. September 2020 Until Sat, 26. September 2020

15th International Conference on Frontiers in Alternative & Traditional Medicine

From Fri, 25. September 2020 Until Sat, 26. September 2020

International Congress on Drug Delivery

From Mon, 5. October 2020 Until Tue, 6. October 2020

Global Pharmaceutical and Pharma Industry Conference

From Mon, 12. October 2020 Until Tue, 13. October 2020

14th International Conference on Pharmaceutics and Drug Safety

From Wed, 21. October 2020 Until Thu, 22. October 2020

Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr.

Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr.




Parkia roxburghii G. Don,Parkia biglobosa auct. non (Jacq.) R.Br., Parkia javanica auct

Vernacular Names

Malaysia Kedaung (Sarawak), kupang (Sabah), petai kerayong (Peninsular)
Indonesia Alai (Sumatra), kedawung (Javanese), peundeuy (Sundanese)
Philippines Kupang(Pilipino), amarang (Palawan)
Burma (Myanmar) Mai-karien (Shan)
Thailand Kariang, riang (Peninsular)

Geographical Distributions

This plant is distributed throughout India, Bangladesh, Burma (Myanmar), Thailand and the Malesian region (except Papua New Guinea).


It is a tree up to 50 m tall.

The leaves are arranged alternate. The primary rachis is a stalk of 18-42 cm long and the pinnate leaf comes with 14-31 pairs of leaflet. The secondary rachis is 8.7-11.5 cm long with 52-72 pairs of leaflet of the pinnate leaf. The leaf form is somewhat sigmoid, 6-10.5 mm x 1-2 mm. The leaflet base eared on proximal side, while its apex is acute.

There are 5-7 stalks per compound inflorescence, each is 8.5-33 cm long with 5.5-6.7 cm long head. The inflorescence became big and rounded at the time the flowers expand. The apical part is 3-4.5 cm in diametre. It has bisexual flowers with sepal up to 10.5 mm long and petal up to 11 mm long. The lobes are up to 2 mm while its strap-shaped pod is up to 50 cm long (including carpel stalk) and 4-5.5 cm broad. Its valves are woody but rarely twisted and have 6-15.5 cm long carpel stalks.

The number of seeds is 12-19 per pod, lying horizontally across the width of the pod.

Ecology / Cultivation

P. timoriana is found in lowland rain forest, mixed deciduous and dry evergreen forests, often along streams or the upper part of slopes. It prefers fertile soils with a pH between 5-7, at 0-600(-1300) m altitude.

Line Drawing / Photograph



  1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 12(2): Medicinal and poisonous plants 2.

Explore Further

Consumer Data

Consumer data including medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs and interactions and depletions.                                    

Read More
Professional Data

Professional data organized into medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs, T&CM herbs, formulas, health conditions, interactions and depletions.

Read More
International Data

We offer International linkages to provide extensive content pertaining to many facets of T&CM as well as Integrated Medicine. Please register for access.    

Read More