Rhus succedanea L.

Rhus succedanea L.




Toxicodendron succedanea (L.) Mol­denke.

Vernacular Names


Wax tree, Japanese wax tree.


Kaen mo (North-eastern), ma­kok kiam (South-western), makkak khao (South­eastern).


S[ow]n d[aaf]u, s[ow]n l[aws]s.

Geographical Distributions

Rhus succedanea is distributed from India, Burma (Myan­mar), Thailand, to Indo-China, China, Taiwan, the Ryukyu Islands and Japan. It is also found in Peninsular Malaysia and northern Sumatra, formerly rarely cultivated in Java.


Rhus succedanea is a small tree or shrub that can reach up to 5(-15) m tall. Its stem is up to 50 cm in diametre.

The leaves are arranged imparipinnate with (2-)3-4(-6) pairs of leaflets. The rachis is (1.5-)8-27 cm long,  with petiole 4-6 cm long, with lance-shaped to linear leaflets, measuring 3-8 cm x 1.3-2.5 cm, obliquely wedge-shaped at base, acuminate at apex and entire. The lower surface is sparsely pubescent and usually with a group of reddish brown papillae or glands in the axils of the veins.

The inflorescence is axillary, panicu­late, and up to 24 cm long while the branches are up to 10 cm long. The flowers are usually bisexual, creamy white, with triangular sepal lobes, ovate or slightly oblong petals, measuring 1-1.5 mm x 0.7 mm, with stamens 1.5-2.5 mm long, nearly globular ovary and hairless.

The drupe is nearly globular, 5-8 mm in diametre and dull yellowish when ripens. The exo­carp is separated from the mesocarp in ripe fruits.

Ecology / Cultivation

Rhus succedanea is found on open slopes or along streams in montane forest at 900-2200 m altitude.

Line Drawing / Photograph



  1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No.12(2): Medicinal and poisonous plants 2.