Compilation of herbal plants (description, geographical distribution, taxonomy, line drawings), biodiversity and herbarium.

Read More
Research & Publication

Description of herbal and T&CM research, searchable publication and process from medicinal plant discovery to clinical trial in producing a high-quality registered herbal drug.

Read More
Traditional & Complementary Medicine (T&CM)


Definition and description of therapies, policy, training and education, research in the practise of (T&CM) and integrated medicine system.           

Read More


News Update

Announcement & Advertisement

Forthcoming Events

International Conference on Biotechnology and Healthcare

From Mon, 7. December 2020 Until Tue, 8. December 2020

International Conference on Malay Medical Manuscript

From Tue, 15. December 2020 Until Wed, 16. December 2020

International Conference on Natural Medicine and Nutrition (ICNMN) 2020

From Thu, 17. December 2020 Until Fri, 18. December 2020

1st Global Summit on Generic Drugs and Quality Control

From Fri, 22. January 2021 Until Sat, 23. January 2021

International Conference on Natural Products and Drug Discovery (ICNPDD) 2021

From Thu, 11. February 2021 Until Fri, 12. February 2021

Calcium and folic acid absorption in patients taking anticonvulsant drugs.


Shafer RB, Nuttall FQ




J Clin Endocrinol Metab


Calcium and folic acid absorption were studied in 28 adult male epileptics on chronic anticonvulsant therapy. In 16 patients on diphenylhydantoin alone, calcium absorption was abnormal in 9. In 12 patients on both diphenylhydantoin and phenobarbital, calcium absorption was abnormal in 3 patients. Folic acid (3H-PGA) absorption was normal in all but one patient, while serum folate (less than 6.4 ng/ml) was reduced in all patients. Hypocalcemia (less than 8.5 mg/100 ml) occurred in only 2 patients, while serum alkaline phosphatase was elevated in 7 patients. These findings support the proposal that rickets and osteomalacia reported in patients on chronic anticonvulsant therapy results from reduced calcium absorption. The effect of these drugs appears to be the acceleration of the metabolism of vitamin D and an increase in the excretion of polar metabolites. This may result in reduced levels of 25- hydroxycholecalciferol and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol which are necessary for normal absorption of calcium. Since calcium absorption may be impaired secondary to a relative vitamin D deficiency, a supplemental increase in vitamin D intake by patients on anticonvulsant drugs is recommended.

Explore Further

Consumer Data

Consumer data including medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs and interactions and depletions.                                    

Read More
Professional Data

Professional data organized into medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs, T&CM herbs, formulas, health conditions, interactions and depletions.

Read More
International Data

We offer International linkages to provide extensive content pertaining to many facets of T&CM as well as Integrated Medicine. Please register for access.    

Read More