Conjugated linoleic acid modulates hepatic lipid composition in mice.


Belury MA, Kempa-Steczko A






Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a chemoprotective fatty acid that inhibits mammary, colon, forestomach, and skin carcinogenesis in experimental animals. We hypothesize that the ubiquitous chemoprotective actions of dietary CLA in extrahepatic tissues are dependent upon its role in modulating fatty acid composition and metabolism in liver, the major organ for lipid metabolism. This study begins to evaluate the role of CLA in lipid metabolism by determining the modulation of fatty acid composition by CLA. Female SENCAR mice were fed semipurified diets containing 0.0% (Diet A), 0.5% (Diet B), 1.0% (Diet C), or 1.5% (Diet D) CLA (by weight) for six weeks. Mice fed Diets B, C, and D exhibited lower body weights and elevated amounts of extractable total lipid in livers compared with mice fed diets without CLA (Diet A). Analyses of the fatty acid composition of liver by gas chromatography revealed that dietary CLA was incorporated into neutral and phospholipids at the expense of linoleate in Diets B, C, and D; oleate increased and arachidonate decreased in neutral lipids of CLA diet groups. In addition, increasing dietary CLA was associated with reduced linoleate in hepatic phospholipids. In an in vitro assay, CLA was desaturated to an unidentified 18:3 product to a similar extent as linoleate conversion to gamma-linolenate (9.88, and 13.63%, respectively). These data suggest that CLA may affect metabolic interconversion of fatty acids in liver that may ultimately result in modified fatty acid composition and arachidonate-derived eicosanoid production in extrahepatic tissues. In addition to determining how dietary CLA modulates eicosanoid synthesis, further work is needed to identify enzymatic products that may result from desaturation of CLA.