Articles

Effects of long-term oral magnesium chloride replacement in congestive heart failure secondary to coronary artery disease.

Author

Bashir Y, Sneddon JF, Staunton HA

Date

15/11/1993

Journal

Am J Cardiol

Abstract

Magnesium deficiency frequently develops in patients with congestive heart failure and may increase susceptibility to lethal arrhythmias and sudden death via multiple pathophysiologic mechanisms. The effects of peroral magnesium supplementation were investigated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial involving 21 patients with stable congestive heart failure secondary to coronary artery disease. All were receiving long-term loop diuretics, and had normal renal function, and low or normal serum magnesium concentrations. Subjects alternately received enteric-coated magnesium chloride (15.8 mmol magnesium per day) and placebo for 6 weeks. Magnesium therapy increased serum magnesium from 0.87 +/- 0.07 to 0.92 +/- 0.05 mmol/liter (p < 0.05), serum potassium from 4.0 +/- 0.3 to 4.3 +/- 0.4 mmol/liter (p < 0.01) and urinary magnesium excretion from 2.82 +/- 0.96 to 4.74 +/- 2.38 mmol/24 hours (p = 0.001). There was no significant change in heart rate or Doppler cardiac index, but mean arterial pressure decreased from 91 +/- 10 to 87 +/- 10 mm Hg (p < 0.05) and systemic vascular resistance from 1,698 +/- 367 to 1,613 +/- 331 dynes s cm-5 (p = 0.047). The frequency of isolated ventricular premature complexes was reduced by 23% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6 to 37%; p < 0.02), couplets by 52% (95% CI 30 to 65%; p < 0.001) and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia episodes by 24% (95% CI 15 to 49%; p < 0.01). Plasma epinephrine decreased from 447 +/- 535 to 184 +/- 106 pg/ml (p = 0.02), but there was no corresponding change in plasma norepinephrine or heart rate variability.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)