Amino acid and putative neurotransmitter transport in human Y79 retinoblastoma cells. Effect of insulin and insulin-like growth factor.


Yorek MA, Dunlap JA, Ginsberg BH.




J Biol Chem


The binding of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and their effect on amino acid and neurotransmitter transport was studied in cultured human Y79 retinoblastoma cells. Y79 cells possess specific receptors for both insulin and IGF-I. Insulin binding to Y79 cells is characterized by a curvilinear Scatchard plot suggesting a two-site or two-affinity binding system. In contrast, IGF-I binding has a linear plot indicative of a one-site, one-affinity binding system. The uptake of glycine, a putative neurotransmitter in the retina occurs by a specific transport system in Y79 cells, independent of the uptake of other neutral amino acids. The uptake of glycine was increased 25-50% by either insulin or IGF-I. The response to insulin or IGF-I on glycine uptake is gradual and concentration dependent. The accumulation of other amino acids and putative retinal neurotransmitters by Y79 cells was not significantly affected by insulin of IGF-I. In addition, the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase was not influenced. The analysis of high affinity glycine uptake indicates that insulin and IGF-I are stimulating glycine transport by increasing the V'max without significantly affecting the K'm. Further analysis suggests that insulin and IGF-I are causing a recruitment of additional glycine transporters at the cell surface or activating otherwise nonfunctional transporters by an unexplained mechanism. Because of the implication that glycine responds as a neuroactive amino acid in Y79 cells these studies suggest that insulin and IGF-I may influence neuroactivity in the human retina by regulating the transport of glycine.