Antioxidant activity and radioprotective effects against chromosomal damage induced in vivo by X-rays of flavan-3-ols (Procyanidins) from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera): comparative study versus other phenolic and organic compounds.


Castillo J, Benavente-Garcia O




J Agric Food Chem


The quantitative distribution of several flavan-3-ols was determined using HPLC in a grape (Vitis vinifera) seed extract (GSE) of four cultivars grown in the region of Murcia. Polymer >/= C(4) units made up the largest group of procyanidins in the GSE (90.92%, expressed as HPLC % area). The antioxidant activity of GSE and other reference compounds was investigated by measuring their ability to scavenge the ABTS(*)(+) radical cation (TEAC). The most effective compounds were, in order: GSE > rutin > (+)-catechin > diosmin >/= ascorbic acid. The radioprotective effects of GSE and other reference compounds were determined by using the micronucleus test for anticlastogenic activity, any reduction of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) being evaluated in the bone marrow of mouse exposed to X-rays. The most effective compounds were, in order: GSE > rutin > dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) > ascorbic acid > 6- n-propyl-2-thiouracil-6c (PTU) > diosmin. The higher ABTS(*)(+) scavenging capacity and anticlastogenic activity of GSE can be explained, structurally, by the high number of conjugated structures between the catechol groups in the B-rings and the 3-OH free groups of the polymeric polyphenolic skeleton and, in addition, by the stability of the aroxyl flavonoid radical generated in the above processes.